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FHWA Home / Safety / Intersection / red-light Running (Long Verion)

red-light Running (Long Verion)

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FHWA Office of Safety Logo: Safe Roads for a Safer Future, Investment in roadway safety saves lives.

Photograph of two cars wrecked in a crash.

speaker notes:

This is an approximately 1-hour presentation on the topic of red-light running (RLR). Topics covered include:


slide 2

Traffic Signals

Photograph of a stoplight head.

 

speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:


slide 3

Intersection Fatalities

Pie chart indicates that 65 percent of fatalities occurred at unsignalized intersections, 31 percent occurred at signalized intersections, and 4 percent were unknown.

speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:

Even though signalized intersections make up only 10% of intersections in the U.S., signalized intersections account for nearly a third of the fatalities that occur at intersections.

Source: FARS database, crashes classified as either "intersection" or "intersection-related"


slide 4

What is red-light Running?


speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:


slide 5

Intersection Definition

Aerial photograph shows the center part of a 4-way signalized intersection highlighted in red. The red shading also covers the areas on the approaching travel lanes between the edge of the stop bar and the square that is the intersection proper, including those segments of crosswalks that run between the stop bar and the center of the intersection.


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 6

Safety Facts About Red-Light Running

Line graph depicts red-light running fatalities from 2000 to 2007. Fatalities are slightly lower in 2007 than they were in 2000.

Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), http://www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 7

Safety Facts About Red-Light Running

Line graph depicts the total number of red-light running crashes, number of persons injured, and number of injury crashes for each year from 1997 to 2004. The data trends are roughly parallel as they edge downward over time.

Source: Establishing a Uniform Definition of Red-Light Running Crashes, ITE Journal, March 2006.


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 8

Safety Facts About Red-Light Running


Source: Prevalence and Characteristics of red-light Running Crashes in the United States, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1999


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 9

Types of Crashes

Iconic images depicting a right-angle crash, where vehicles approaching the intersection at right angles intersect in a crash; a rear-end crash, where one vehicle cannot stop for the light in time and crashes into the vehicle stopped in front of it; and a left-turn crash, in which an oncoming vehicle is hit by a vehicle attempting to cross its path.

speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:


slide 10

Red-Light Running Studies


speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Sources:


slide 11

Types of Red-Light Runners

Graphic indicates there are two types of red-light runners: unintentional, which can be mitigated by engineering countermeasures, and intention, which can be mitigated by enforcement countermeasures.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 12

Effective Programs

Iconic image depicting the interrelationship between engineering, education, and enforcement.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 13

Possible Causes and Countermeasures

Possible Cause of RLR Engineering Enforcement Education
Did not see signal Likely countermeasure. empty cell Possible countermeasure.
Tried to beat yellow Possible countermeasure. Likely countermeasure. Likely countermeasure.
Reported they had green Likely countermeasure. empty cell empty cell
Intentional violation Possible countermeasure. Likely countermeasure. Likely countermeasure.
Unable to stop vehicle Likely countermeasure. empty cell Possible countermeasure.
Followed another vehicle Likely countermeasure. Likely countermeasure. empty cell
Confused by signal Likely countermeasure. empty cell Possible countermeasure.
Likely countermeasure. = Likely countermeasure.
Possible countermeasure.= Possible countermeasure.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 14

The First Step

Screenshot of a sample assessment sheet for engineering countermeasures for red-light running.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 15

Intersection Safety Resources

Collage of the cover pages for the resources listed on this slide.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 16

Red-Light Running Resources

Collage of the cover pages for the resources listed on this slide.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 17

Engineering Countermeasures


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 18

Improve Signal Visibility

Photograph of multi-lane intersections where each approach lane has its own signal face.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:

NOTE ABOUT CRASH REDUCTION FACTORS: Source is Intersection Safety Briefing #8: Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness to Make Intersections Safer. USDOT/FHWA/ITE.


slide 19

Improve Signal Visibility

Two photos where supplemental signal heads have been installed on corners, median strips, and diagonally opposite approaching traffic at an intersection hidden by a curve in the road.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:


slide 20

Improve Line of Sight

Two photos in which signal heads have been treaded either with black backplates or squared visors which fit around each of the three individual light displays on the signal.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 21

Improve Signal Conspicuity

Set of photos displaying signal heads with and without backplates.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:


slide 22

Improve Signal Conspicuity

Photo of an LED signal head.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 23

Improve Signal Conspicuity

Two photos, one of a double red signal head,  and one of a double red signal head on a roadway with horizontal curves.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:


slide 24

Increase Likelihood of Stopping

Photo of a roadway sign indicating a signal ahead.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:


slide 25

Increase Likelihood of Stopping

Two photographs of flashing yellow warning beacons and signal warning signs. One beacon and sign set is mounted on a post beside the roadway, and the other is suspended on a mast arm above the roadway.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 26

Increase Likelihood of Stopping

Two photographs of roadways where road friction improvements are being applied.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 27

Improve Signal Timing

Photograph of a signalized intersection in an urban area.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:


slide 28

Improve Signal Timing

Equation. Yellow duration in seconds equals reaction time plus the result of (the product of 1.47 times the 85th percentile speed) divided by (the sum of 2 times deceleration plus 2 times grade times accesselation due to gravity).

Y = yellow duration in seconds

t = reaction time = 1 s

V85 = 85th percentile speed in mi/h

d = deceleration=10ft/s2

G = grade in ft/ft

g = acceleration due to gravity = 32.2ft/s2


speaker notes:

Major points:

Source: Bonneson, J.A., and K. Zimmerman. Development of Guidelines for Identifying and Treating Locations with a Red-Light-Running Problem. Report No. FHWA/TX-05/0-4196-2. Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, Texas, September 2004.

A new NCHRP Project 3-95 will be conducting research to determined if the equation and parameter values are valid for all conditions. The results will be available in about 3 years.


slide 29

Improve Signal Timing

Photograph of two urban intersections where both signals are green.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 30

Eliminate the Need to Stop

Photograph of a roundabout in a suburban setting.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:


slide 31

Eliminate the Need to Stop

Two photos, one with a worker removing a signal mounted to a post, the other of a sign indicating that a signal is under study for removal.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Crash Reduction Factors:


slide 32

The Next Step

Photograph of an engineer performing observations at a signalized intersection.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 33

Enforcement Countermeasures


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 34

Increased Enforcement


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 35

Enforcement Assistance Lights

Two photos depicting enforcement lights. One photo has a blowup of pole-mounted enforcement lights, and the other shows the light attached at the bottom of a signal head.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Enforcement assistance lights are also known by other names: red-signal enforcement lights, white lights, tattletale lights, and rat lights.


slide 36

Automated Enforcement

Set of photos depicting post- and pole-mounted red-light cameras and a sign indicating a signalized intersection is photo enforced.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:

From FHWA Web site FAQ page:


slide 37

red-light Cameras

Map of the United States indicating states where red-light cameras are operated: AL, AZ, CA, CO, DC, DE, GA, FL, IA, IL, LA, MD, MO, MS, NC, NM, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, SD, TN, TX, WA.

Source: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety web site (www.iihs.org)


speaker notes:

Some key lessons learned:


slide 38

Education Countermeasures

Collage of informational document covers.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 39

For More Information

FHWA Office of Safety
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
www.iihs.org

Institute of Transportation Engineers
http://www.ite.org/safety/

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
http://safety.transportation.org/

Red Means Stop Coalition
http://www.redmeansstop.org/


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


speaker notes:

This is an approximately 1-hour presentation on the topic of red-light running (RLR). Topics covered include:


slide 2

Traffic Signals

Photograph of a stoplight head.

 

speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:


slide 3

Intersection Fatalities

Pie chart indicates that 65 percent of fatalities occurred at unsignalized intersections, 31 percent occurred at signalized intersections, and 4 percent were unknown.

speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:

Even though signalized intersections make up only 10% of intersections in the U.S., signalized intersections account for nearly a third of the fatalities that occur at intersections.

Source: FARS database, crashes classified as either "intersection" or "intersection-related"


slide 4

What is red-light Running?


speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:


slide 5

Intersection Definition

Aerial photograph shows the center part of a 4-way signalized intersection highlighted in red. The red shading also covers the areas on the approaching travel lanes between the edge of the stop bar and the square that is the intersection proper, including those segments of crosswalks that run between the stop bar and the center of the intersection.


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 6

Safety Facts About Red-Light Running

Line graph depicts red-light running fatalities from 2000 to 2007. Fatalities are slightly lower in 2007 than they were in 2000.

Source: Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), http://www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 7

Safety Facts About Red-Light Running

Line graph depicts the total number of red-light running crashes, number of persons injured, and number of injury crashes for each year from 1997 to 2004. The data trends are roughly parallel as they edge downward over time.

Source: Establishing a Uniform Definition of Red-Light Running Crashes, ITE Journal, March 2006.


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 8

Safety Facts About Red-Light Running


Source: Prevalence and Characteristics of red-light Running Crashes in the United States, Accident Analysis and Prevention, 1999


speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 9

Types of Crashes

Iconic images depicting a right-angle crash, where vehicles approaching the intersection at right angles intersect in a crash; a rear-end crash, where one vehicle cannot stop for the light in time and crashes into the vehicle stopped in front of it; and a left-turn crash, in which an oncoming vehicle is hit by a vehicle attempting to cross its path.

speaker notes:

Major Points to Make:


slide 10

Red-Light Running Studies


speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Sources:


slide 11

Types of Red-Light Runners

Graphic indicates there are two types of red-light runners: unintentional, which can be mitigated by engineering countermeasures, and intention, which can be mitigated by enforcement countermeasures.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 12

Effective Programs

Iconic image depicting the interrelationship between engineering, education, and enforcement.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 14

The First Step

Screenshot of a sample assessment sheet for engineering countermeasures for red-light running.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 14

Intersection Safety Resources

Collage of the cover pages for the resources listed on this slide.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 15

Red-Light Running Resources

Collage of the cover pages for the resources listed on this slide.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 16

Engineering Countermeasures

A collage of photos depicting a post mounted warning beacon in advance of signalized intersection, a roundabout in a suburban setting, the approach to an urban intersection with the signal on the yellow phase, and a multi-lane intersection depicting one signal head per approach lane.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:



slide 17

The Next Step

Photograph of an engineer performing observations at a signalized intersection.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 18

Enforcement Countermeasures

Collage of photos depicting a pole-mounted red-light camera, a photo enforcement sign, and a signal enforcement light mounted to the base of a mast-arm mounted signal head.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:



slide 19

Education Countermeasures

Collage of informational document covers.

speaker notes:

Major points to make:


slide 20

For More Information

FHWA Office of Safety
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
www.iihs.org

Institute of Transportation Engineers
http://www.ite.org/safety/

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials
http://safety.transportation.org/

Red Means Stop Coalition
http://www.redmeansstop.org/


speaker notes:

Major points to make:

Page last modified on September 4, 2014.
Safe Roads for a Safer Future - Investment in roadway safety saves lives
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000