A Guide for Maintaining Pedestrian Facilities for Enhanced Safety
PDF [8.30 MB]
U.S. Department of Transportation
Table of Contents
1.2 Audience for Guide
1.3 Types of Pedestrian Facilities
1.4 Overview of Pedestrian Maintenance Programs in the United States
2.1 Pedestrian Facilities – A Part of the Transportation System
2.2 Maintenance is Critical for Safety
2.3 Maintenance Improves Mobility.
2.4 Maintenance is Critical for People with Mobility Restrictions.
2.5 Asset Management.
2.6 Liability Management.3 Common Maintenance Issues.
3.1 Surface Types.
3.2 Common Maintenance Issues
3.2.1 Infrastructure Issues Leading
to Increased Maintenance
4.1 Inspection and Accessibility.
4.2.1 Principles for Compliance
4.3 Policies and Ordinances
4.4.1 Inspection Criteria and
5.1 When is Maintenance Necessary for Sidewalks, Paths, and Curb Ramps?
5.2 Maintenance Repair Methods for sidewalks and paths
5.3 Maintenance of Crosswalks
5.3.1 Crosswalk Marking Material
5.4 Maintenance of Pedestrian Signals
5.5 Maintenance of Pedestrian Signage
5.6 Seasonal Maintenance
5.6.1 Vegetation Removal and
6.2 Pavement Thickness
6.4 Control Joints and Scoring Patterns
6.5 Curb Ramps & Detectable Warning Fields
6.6 Street Trees
6.6.1 Soil Selection
7.1 Methods of funding inspection and maintenance programs
7.1.1 Community-Paid Repair and
7.2 Funding Summary
List of Figures
Figure 1: Sidewalks and pedestrian areas should be accessible to all users
Figure 2: Concrete is the most widely used material for sidewalks in the United States
Figure 3: Asphalt is commonly used for shared use paths
Figure 4: Porous pavers in downtown Denver
Figure 5: Rubberized pavers allow for modular installation
Figure 6: A crumbling surface on a walkway
Figure 7: Spalling on a sidewalk
Figure 8: Cracking of sidewalk sections can lead to accessibility issues
Figure 9: Heaved sidewalk
Figure 10: Damaged detectible warning fields
Figure 11: A street is prepared for the installation of new crosswalk in-laid markings
Figure 12: Mean annual snowfall and days that snow remains on the ground
Figure 13: Snow and ice should be promptly removed from sidewalks and paths
Figure 14: Asphalt pushed up against curb ramp
Figure 15: New markings tracked over already
Figure 16: Soil accumulation across a sidewalk
Figure 17: The maximum extension of this object is limited to 4 inches
Figure 18: Sidewalk inspection examples and criteria from a Midwestern city
Figure 19: An accessible detour
Figure 20: Missing areas of concrete have been marked for repair
Figure 21: Areas have been temporarily repaired with asphalt patches
Figure 22: Cracking can cause trip hazards
Figure 23: Wedge has been placed to mitigate the hazard
Figure 24: A small wedge may create a hazard
Figure 25: A raised sidewalk block has been ground down to provide a smoother transition
Figure 26: An unevenly raised slab can be ground to provide a smoother transition
Figure 27: The mud-jacking process
Figure 28: These panels were mud-jacked more than 20 years ago
Figure 29: Damaged pavers have been repaired with asphalt to alleviate a hazard
Figure 30: Porous pavement in Washington D.C.
Figure 31: Relative comparison of crosswalk marking materials
Figure 32: Old crosswalk markings removed for new crosswalk marking tape
Figure 33: City of Boston fines for non-compliant snow removal
Figure 34: Five inches of concrete sidewalk
Figure 35: Inadequate shoulders on a path resulting in edge damage
Figure 36: Tree size to soil volume relationship
Figure 37: Modular plastic pavers near a tree
Figure 38: City of Seattle standard specification for street tree planting
Figure 39: City of Seattle partial list of approved street trees
The FHWA Safety Office is continually developing new materials to assist states, localities and citizens in improving pedestrian and bicycle safety. The materials listed on this page were completed recently.
New Bicycle Safer Journey (Revised 2014)
The State of Florida is developing a statewide Pedestrian Safety Action Plan. They have set up a project website that includes information about the project, workshop presentations and resources relating to pedestrian safety.