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FHWA Home / Safety / Intersection / Intersection Safety

Red-Light Running

IMPORTANT NOTE: The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) does not own, operate, regulate, or oversee red-light camera (RLC) systems, nor do we formally track or inventory their use in the United States. A red-light camera is an enforcement tool, not a traffic control device, and so is not governed by the Federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Questions about their operation in a specific State or city, or about tickets/citations received, should be directed to the police, traffic engineering or public works department in that State or city.

Photo: Prepare to Stop signal before intersection

Outreach and Education
Technical Materials
Other Resources
Federal and State Research
National Partners


Red-light running (RLR) is a serious signalized intersection safety issue. RLR-related crashes result in several hundred people killed each year in the United States. The following table summarizes the number of people killed each year in RLR-related crashes in the United States, based on data extracted from the NHTSA Fatality Analysis and Reporting System (FARS).

Year Total
Fatalities involving an Intersection
Fatalities involving a Signalized Intersection
Traffic Fatalities involving
Red Light Running
at a Signalized Intersection
Pedestrian and
Bicycle Fatalities
Red Light Running
at a Signalized Intersection
2014 32,744 8,692 2,681 711 44
2015 35,484 9,664 2,923 786 52
2016 37,806 10,414 3,298 826 47
2017 37,133 10,301 3,271 890 46
2018 36,560 10,011 3,274 846 53

Outreach and Education

Technical Materials

  1. plus symbol Enforcement

    • PEDSAFE –Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System – Automated Enforcement Systems Overview (FHWA, 2013) [HTML]
    • Intersection Safety Issue Brief 7 – Using Automated Enforcement to Reduce Red-Light Running (FHWA, 2009) [HTML] [PDF]
    • Red Signal Enforcement Lights (FHWA, 2009) [HTML] [PDF]
    • Red Light Camera (RLC) Systems Operational Guidelines (FHWA, 2005) [HTML] [PDF]
    • Red Light Camera Enforcement Case Study – Boulder, CO (Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, 2001) [HTML]
    • Red Light Photo Enforcement Case Study – West Hollywood, CA (Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, 2001) [HTML]

Other Resources

  1. plus symbol Training

  2. plus symbol Organizations and Associations

Federal and State Research

  1. plus symbol Federal Highway Administration

    • Driver Attitudes and Behaviors at Intersections and Potential Effectiveness of Engineering Countermeasures (FHWA, 2005) [HTML] [PDF]
    • Safety Evaluation of Red-Light Cameras (FHWA, 2005) [HTML] [PDF]
    • Association of Selected Intersection Factors with Red-Light-Running Crashes (FHWA, 2000) [HTML] [PDF]
    • Synthesis and Evaluation of Red-Light Running Electronic Enforcement Programs in the United States (FHWA, 1999) [PDF]
  2. plus symbol Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office, USDOT

  3. plus symbol National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

    • Automated Enforcement: A Compendium of Worldwide Evaluations of Results (NHTSA, 2007) [PDF]
    • Analysis of Red Light Violation Data Collected from Intersections Equipped with Red Light Photo Enforcement Cameras (NHTSA, 2006) [PDF]
    • Analysis of Fatal Crashes Due to Signal and Stop Sign Violations (NHTSA, 2004) [PDF]
  4. plus symbol National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP)

    • NCHRP Report 731 – Guidelines for Timing Yellow and All-Red Intervals at Signalized Intersections (TRB, 2012) [PDF]
    • NCHRP Report 729 – Automated Enforcement for Speeding and Red Light Running (TRB, 2012) [PDF]
    • NCHRP Synthesis 310 – Impact of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Crash (TRB, 2003) [PDF]

  5. plus symbol States

    • Automated Enforcement and Highway Safety Final Report (Louisiana, 2013) [PDF]
    • Report on Red-Light Traffic Control Signal Monitoring Systems Third Annual Report (New Jersey, 2013) [PDF]
    • Design and Evaluation of a Dynamic Dilemma Zone System for a High Speed Rural Intersection (Maryland, 2012) [PDF]
    • Toolbox of Countermeasures to Reduce Red Light Running – Final Report (Iowa, 2012) [PDF]
    • Development of a Framework for Evaluating Yellow Timing at Signalized Intersections (Virginia, 2011) [PDF]
    • Evaluating the Automated Red Light Enforcement Program (ARLE) Final Report (Pennsylvania, 2011) [PDF]
    • Evaluation of Photographic Traffic Signal Enforcement Systems in Texas (Texas, 2011) [PDF]
    • Red Light Running Camera Assessment – Final Report (Oregon, 2011) [PDF]
    • Evaluation of Dilemma Zone Protection Practices for Signalized Intersection Control (Vermont, 2009) [PDF]
    • Effectiveness of Iowa's Automated Red Light Running Enforcement Programs – Final Report (Iowa, 2007) [PDF]
    • Impact of Red Light Cameras (Photo-Red Enforcement) on Crashes in Virginia (Virginia, 2007) [PDF]
    • Impact of Red Light Cameras (Automated Enforcement) on Safety in Arizona (Arizona, 2005) [PDF]
    • Effectiveness of All-Red Clearance Interval on Intersection Crashes (Minnesota, 2004) [PDF]
    • Red Light Running Handbook: An Engineer’s Guide to Reducing Red Light-Related Crashes (Texas, 2004) [PDF]
    • Design and Installation Guidelines for Advance Warning Systems for End-of-Green Phase at High Speed Traffic Signals (Texas, 2003) [PDF]
    • Review and Evaluation of Enforcement Issues and Safety Statistics Related to Red Light Running (Texas, 2003) [PDF]
    • Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red Light Running (Texas, 2002) [PDF]
    • Guidelines for Installation of Advanced Warning Flashers (Minnesota, 2002) [DOC]
    • Review and Evaluation of Factors that Affect the Frequency of Red Light Running (Texas, 2001) [PDF]

National Partners

Page last modified on April 28, 2020
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