U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
202-366-4000


Skip to content
Facebook iconYouTube iconTwitter iconFlickr iconLinkedInInstagram

Safety

eSubscribe
eSubscribe Envelope

FHWA Home / Safety / Intersection / Making Intersections Safer: A Toolbox of Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running

Making Intersections Safer: A Toolbox of Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running

An Informational Report

< Previous Table of Contents  

References

  1. Information provided by the Federal Highway Administration in September 2001.

  2. H. W. McGee and K. A. Eccles, NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 310: Impact of red-light Camera Enforcement on Crash Experience, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2002).

  3. National Committee on Uniform Traffic Laws and Ordinances, Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic Ordinance (Evanston, IL: Revised, 1992).

  4. P. A. Parsonson, NCHRP Synthesis of Highway Practice 172: Signal Timing Improvement Practices, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 1992).

  5. L.M. Wissinger, "Issues Surrounding the Operation and Installation of red-light Cameras" (master's thesis, North Carolina State University, 2000).

  6. R.A. Retting, A.F. Williams and M.A. Greene, "Red-Light Running and Sensible Countermeasures: Summary of Research Findings," Transportation Research Record 1640 (1998): 23-26.

  7. A. Kamyab et al., "red-light Running in Iowa: The Scope, Impact and Possible Implications," (final report, Center for Transportation Research and Education, Ames, IA, 2000).

  8. Y.M. Mohamedshah, L.W. Chen and F.M. Council, "Association of Selected Intersection Factors with Red-Light Running Crashes," (Highway Safety Information System Summary Report, Federal Highway Administration, 2000).

  9. R.A. Retting, R. G. Ulmer and A.F. Williams, "Prevalence and Characteristics of red-light Running Crashes in the United States," Accident Analysis & Prevention (1999): 31, 687-694.

  10. J.S. Milazzo, J.E. Hummer and L.M. Prothe, "A Recommended Policy of Automated Electronic Traffic Enforcement of Red-Light Running Violations in North Carolina," (North Carolina Governor's Highway Safety Program, North Carolina State University, 2001).

  11. "Stop red-light Running," Federal Highway Administration Safety Web site, 2002.

  12. H. Thompson and L. Adlard, "Photo red-light Enforcement Demonstration Project Evaluation: City of Beaverton," (City of Beaverton, OR, 2001).

  13. B. Persaud and F. Council, "red-light Camera Safety Evaluation-Experimental Design," (draft final report: FHWA Intelligent Transportation Systems Joint Program Office under Project Number DTFH61-96-C-00077, 2002).

  14. J. L. Fleck and B.B. Smith, "Can We Make red-light Runners Stop? red-light Photo Enforcement in San Francisco, California," (paper presented at the 78th annual meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, January 1999).

  15. Unpublished report documenting the methodology and overview of findings for focus groups conducted in San Francisco on June 25, 2001 conducted by Jeff Henne, President of The Henne Group.

  16. R. A. Retting and A.F. Williams, "Characteristics of red-light Violators: Results of a Field Investigation," Journal of Safety Research (1996): 27.1, 9-15.

  17. B. E. Porter et al., "A Nationwide Survey of red-light Running: Measuring Driver Behaviors for the "Stop red-light Running' Program," 1999. Available: safety.fhwa.dot.gov.

  18. J. Bonneson, M. Brewer and K. Zimmerman, "Review and Evaluation of Factors that Affect the Frequency of red-light-Running," FHWA/TX-02/4027-1 (Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 2001), 78.

  19. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Engineering Handbook, (Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1999).

  20. R. Van der Horst and A. Wilmink, "Drivers' Decision-Making at Signalized Intersections: An Optimization of the Yellow Timing," Traffic Engineering & Control, (Crowthorne, England: 1986) 615-622.

  21. Results of unpublished research conducted by BMI for the Federal Highway Administration.

  22. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, Millenium Edition, (Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 2001).

  23. G. F. King, "Guidelines for Uniformity in Traffic Control Signal Design Configurations," Research Results Digest, (Washington, DC: National Cooperative Highway Research Program, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 1977).

  24. G. B. Thomas and D. J. Smith, "Effective of Roadway Safety Improvements," (final report: Center for Transportation Research and Education, Iowa State University, 2001).

  25. B. P. Russi, "Impact of Mast-Mounted Signal Heads on Accident Reduction," ITE Journal (October 1991).

  26. Based on unpublished information provided by Stan Polanis of Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Some of this information was updated and subsequently compiled in a paper entitled, "Improving Intersections Safety Through Design and Operations (Examples)," by Stanley F. Polanis, Assistant Director of Transportation, City of Winston-Salem, Department of Transportation.

  27. E. Felipe, D. Mitic, and S. R. Zein, "Safety Benefits of Additional Primary Signal Heads," (British Columbia: Insurance Corporation of British Columbia, 1998).

  28. Unpublished Information provided by Naperville, IL.

  29. Unpublished information obtained from John Abraham, Engineer, City of Troy, MI.

  30. T. Sayed, W. Abdelwahab and J. Nepomuceno, "Safety Evaluation of Alternative Signal Head Design", Transportation Research Record 1635, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 1998).

  31. B. Marshall, "How Stuff Works-Question 178," howstuffworks.com, May 2002.

  32. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Equipment and Materials Standards, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2001).

  33. W. J. Moore and C. You, "Wire Guided," Traffic Technology International, 2001.

  34. J.D. Bullough, et al., "Response to Simulated Traffic Signals Using Light-Emitting Diode and Incandescent Sources," Transportation Research Record 1724, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 2000).

  35. "Light Emitting Diodes Being Used for Traffic Signal Lights," www.co.scottsdale.az.us/trafficsignals/ledpur, City of Scottsdale, AZ.

  36. "Visibility of Traffic Signal Displays for Aging and Colour Deficient Drivers-Final Report," (final report: National Committee on Uniform Traffic Control, September 2001).

  37. W.J. Styles, "Evaluation of the Flashing Red Strobe Signal," (report FHWA/MD-83/07: Maryland State Highway Administration, June 1982).

  38. B.H. Cottrell, Jr., "Evaluation of the Use of Strobe Lights in the Red Lens of Traffic Signals," Technical Assistance Report.

  39. J. Bonneson, M. Brewer and K. Zimmerman, "Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce red-light Running," FHWA-TX-03/ 4027-2, (Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 2002) 122.

  40. B.A. Farraher, R. Weinholzer and M.P. Kowski, "The Effect of Advanced Warning Flashers on red-light Running-A Study Using Motion Imaging Recording System Technology at Trunk Highway 169 and Pioneer Trail in Bloomington, Minnesota," www.dot.state.mn.us/metro/trafficeng/signals/reports.html.

  41. T. Sayed, H. Vahidi, and F. Rodriguez, "Advanced Warning Flashers: Do They Improve Safety?" Transportation Research Record 1692, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 1999).

  42. National Center for Statistics and Analysis, "Traffic Safety Facts 2000: A Compilation of Motor Vehicle Crash Data from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System and the General Estimates System," DOT HS 809 337, (NHTSA, National Center for Statistics and Analysis, U.S. Department of Transportation: December 2001).

  43. G.A. Ali, R. Al-Mahrooqi, and R. Taha, "Measurement, Analysis, Evaluation and Restoration of Skid Resistance on the Streets of Muscat," (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 1999).

  44. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Engineering Handbook, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999).

  45. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Manual of Traffic Signal Design, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1998).

  46. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, (Washington, DC: American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1990).

  47. R.A. Retting and M.A. Greene, "Influence of Traffic Signal Timing on red-light Running and Potential Vehicle Conflicts at Urban Intersections," Transportation Research Record 1595, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 1997) 1-7.

  48. Institute for Transportation Engineers, "Determining Vehicle Change Intervals: A Proposed Recommended Practice," (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1985).

  49. R.H. Wortman, J.M. Witkowski, and T.C. Fox, "Traffic Characteristics During Signal Change Intervals," Transportation Research Record 1027, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 1985) 4-6.

  50. R.A. van der Horst, "Driver Decision Making at Traffic Signals," Transportation Research Record 1172, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 1988) 93-97.

  51. The Urban Transportation Monitor, Vol. 15, No. 22 (Lawley Publications, Nov. 23, 2001) 9-11.

  52. "Synthesis of Safety Research Related to Traffic Control and Roadway Elements-Volume 1," FHWA-TS-82-232, (Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, 1982) 193.

  53. T.K. Datta, K. Schattler and S. Datta, "red-light Violations and Crashes at Urban Intersections," Transportation Research Record 1734, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 2000).

  54. Institute of Transportation Engineers, The Traffic Safety Toolbox: A Primer on Traffic Safety, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999).

  55. P.T. McCoy and G. Pesti, "Dilemma Zone Protection with Advance Detection and Active Warning Signs," (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Institute of Transportation Engineers, August 2002).

  56. C.V. Zegeer and R.C. Deen, "Green-Extension Systems at High-Speed Intersections," ITE Journal, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, Nov. 1978).

  57. J.L. Kay, L.G. Neudorff and F.A. Wagner, "Criteria for Removing Traffic Signals," Report Number FHWA/RD-80/104, (Washington, DC: Department of Transportation, Sept. 1980).

  58. B. Persaud et al., "Crash Reductions Related to Traffic Signal Removal in Philadelphia," Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 29, 1997.

  59. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Control Devices Handbook, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2001).

  60. Robinson, et al., "Roundabouts: An Informational Guide," Report No. FHWA-RD-00-067, (Washington, DC: Federal Highway Administration, June 2000).

  61. M.E. Niederhauser, B.A. Collins and E.J. Myers, "The Use of Roundabouts: Comparison with Alternate Design Solution."

  62. B.N. Persaud et al., "Crash Reductions Following Installation of Roundabouts in the United States," (Arlington, VA: Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, March 2000).

  63. K.C. Kacir, R.J. Benz and H.G. Hawkins, "Analysis of Flashing Signal Operation," Transportation Research Record 1421, (Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 1993) 21-29.

  64. S.F. Polanis, "Right-Angle Crashes and Late-Night/Early-Morning Flashing Operation: 19 Case Studies," ITE Journal, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, April 2002).

  65. Institute of Transportation Engineers, Manual of Traffic Engineering Studies, (Washington, DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1994).
< Previous Table of Contents  
Page last modified on May 31, 2016
Safe Roads for a Safer Future - Investment in roadway safety saves lives
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000