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Innovative Intersection Safety Improvement Strategies and Management Practices: A Domestic Scan

List of Tables and Figures

List of Figures

1. FHWA's report on Signalized Intersection Safety in Europe

2. Areas visited

3. Scan team

4. Photograph of screen showing Charlotte's tool to locate crash location

5. Screen view of sketch with narrative for individual crash location reported captured in Charlotte's crash records system

6. Dallas County pedestrian deaths map

7. Illustrative example of spatial crash summary generated by SEMCOG

8. Charlotte's safety improvement project selection and evaluation process

9. Signal heads with led sections

10. Black signal faces with reflective yellow backplates

11. "U-TURN YIELD" regulatory sign for left turn signal head on an approach with dual left turn lanes in south Florida

12. Dynamic regulatory sign at intersection in Michigan, with the "NO TURN ON RED" message displayed (when a left green arrow signal indication is displayed to opposing left turning traffic)

13. Dynamic regulatory sign at intersection in Michigan, with no message displayed (when a red left arrow is displayed to the opposing left turning traffic)

14. Dynamic regulatory and information signs used in Portland at an intersection where a trolley line crosses

15. Crosshead illuminated case "STOP" sign in Michigan

16. Overhead illuminated case "LEFT" sign in Michigan

17. Activated, internally illuminated "PED XING" warning sign hung from a mast arm

18. Overhead, internally illuminated street name sign with 12" letters in Clearview font

19. "OLD" and "NEW, improved" street name signs mounted on signal poles

20. Signing treatment for all-way stop controlled intersection

21. Signing treatment for two-way stop controlled intersection

22. Intersection in Richardson with "cat" tracks, also called "puppy" tracks

23. In-lane pavement marking message designating Michigan State Route 10 (M-10), applied in advance of an exit ramp

24. Pavement message for pedestrians at crosswalk

25a. Angled view of device with lights not activated

25b. Angled view of device with lights activated

25c. "Top-down" view of device with lights activated

25d. "Front-on" view of device without lights activated

25e. "Front-on" view of device with lights activated

26. View of the ramp of in-pavement lighting device

27. View of pole mounted controller cabinet for in-pavement speed reduction system mounted on elevated ramp above

28. View of inside of the controller cabinet for Florida ramp

29. View of in-pavement lighting device and sealant showing sawcut for cable

30. Loops used for speed detection near "beginning" ramp upstream of sharp curve

31. Two views of SR 84 off ramp before (left) and after (right) installation of LED modules

32. View of the system at night with the in-pavement lights "on"

33. View of the system during daylight hours with the in-pavement lights "on"

34. Example of a blue bike lane in Portland

35. A blue bike lane and dedicated right turn lane at an intersection in Portland

36. Example of a blue bike lane between a dedicated right turn lane and a shared use right-and-through lane in Portland

37. Raised textured crosswalk in Charlotte

38. Brick crosswalks in Charlotte

39. "YIELD TO BIKES" regulatory sign in Portland

40. A regulatory sign for the situation where a blue bike lane "straddles" a dedicated right turn only lane and a shared-use, right-and-through lane

41. Pedestrian crossing warning sign and supplemental sign in Charlotte

42. Activated flashing beacon that complements static warning sign and in-pavement lighting in Dallas

43. Symbolic bicyclist "tripping" warning sign in Portland

44. Audible pedestrian signal heads and speakers in Charlotte

45. Speaker on underside of a pedestrian head in Charlotte

46. Pedestrian push button device in Charlotte with supplemental information in Braille on sign

47. Pedestrian push button device in Charlotte with supplemental information in Braille on sign

48. Example of another pedestrian push button device with supplemental raised arrow device mounted above the push button

49. Pedestrian push button signs in both English and Spanish at an intersection in Charlotte

50. A close-up of the pedestrian crossing sign that shows the information in Spanish

51. Pedestrian detection system that employs motion detection technology in Detroit

52. Pedestrian detection system that detects pedestrians in crosswalks in Portland

53. Closer view of the pedestrian detection device deployed in Portland

54. Loop in trail crossing to detect bicyclists in Portland

55. Video cameras deployed to detect bicyclists in Portland

56. A closer view of the camera mounted on the luminaire arm

57. Signal heads and phasing for bicycle movement at intersection where video cameras are used in Portland

58. View from left-turn pocket where a Dallas (city in the background) phasing is in operation.

59a. First set of signal indications when flashing yellow left arrow is displayed

59b. Second set of signal indications when flashing yellow left arrow is displayed

59c. Third set of signal indications when steady left green arrow is displayed

59d. Fourth set of signal indications when steady left red arrow is displayed

60. Intersection in Dallas' central business district where longer walk and "FLASHING DON'T WALK" intervals can be put into service by depressing the push button for five or more seconds.

61. Intersection approach in Portland where loops beyond the stop line are used to delay the onset of the yellow interval

62. Speed prediction algorithm for Richardson experimental red clearance interval hold.

63. Michigan Indirect Left Turn Junction

64. Vehicular movements at a Michigan indirect left turn junction

65. Intersection bulb-out for a light rail/trolley transit stop in Portland

66. An example of an intersection bulb-out in West Palm Beach, Florida

67. Intersection bulb-outs to reduce the street width opening in residential area in West Palm Beach

68. Intersection bulb-outs to define parking lane in commercial area in West Palm Beach

69. Illustrative example of an ornamental intersection bulb-out and pavement design

70. Photograph of same intersection in West Palm Beach showing the traffic signal heads, the loop, the brick pavement, the transverse crosswalk markings and the school crossing sign

71. Island implemented in median of two-lane road at an intersection that serves as a gateway to a corridor in West Palm Beach

72. Median treatment at intersections in West Palm Beach

73. Channelizing median device used in Charlotte

74. Illustrative example of one method to offset a left turn lane

75a. A Michigan "Loon."

75b. Aerial sketch of a Michigan Loon

76. Aerial view of roundabout constructed in Michigan

77. View of another roundabout constructed in Michigan

78. Mini-roundabout in Michigan

79. Approach to mini-roundabout in Michigan

80. Detailed view of channelizing island on approach to mini-roundabout

81. View of warning sign on approach to mini-roundabout

82. View of raised intersection/speed table in West Palm Beach

83. Closer view of raised intersection/speed table in West Palm Beach

84. At-grade intersection with jug-handle-type ramps in two quadrants located in Bend, Oregon

85. Intersection in West Palm Beach

86. Illustration of alternative intersection

87. Photograph of Clematis Street in West Palm Beach looking west

88. Photograph of Clematis Street in West Palm Beach looking east

89. Plaza at east end of Clematis Street

90. Intersection of Narcissus Street and Datura Street in West Palm Beach

91. Aerial view of intersection in Charlotte prior to implementation of geometric treatment

92. Photograph of Charlotte intersection after improvement

93. Two photographs of pedestrian refuge at an intersection in Charlotte after improvement

94. Design plan showing geometric modifications and changes to pedestrian crossing at a somewhat complex intersection in Charlotte

95. Depiction of completed intersection geometric treatment implemented in Charlotte

96. Close-up of crossing and median refuge island

97. Close-up of larger concrete landing in one corner

98. View of signal-controlled intersection equipped with "rat" lights in Richardson, Texas

99. Another detailed view of "rat" light

100. View of advance sign for a red light running automated enforcement system in Portland

101. View of camera for a red light running automated enforcement system

102. View of strobe light at the intersection for a red light running automated enforcement system in Portland

103. View of inductive loops at stop line for a red light running automated enforcement system in Portland

104. View of advance sign for a red light running automated enforcement system in Charlotte

105. View of camera for a red light running automated enforcement system in Charlotte

106. SEMCOG's program to reduce red light running

107. English version of brochure on the benefits of walking

108. Spanish version of brochure on the benefits of walking

List of Tables

Table 1. Factors and weights used by the Road Commission for Oakland County for project prioritization using Michigan Transportation Economic Development Funds (TEDF-Category C Funds) and Surface Transportation Program (STP) Funds

Table 2. Changes in Oakland County's Population, VMT, Crash Fatalities, and Crash Fatality Rate

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