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FHWA Home / Safety / Intersection / Intersection Safety Issue Briefs

Intersection Safety Issue Briefs

Issue Brief 17

Intersection Safety Briefs Resources

November 2009
FHWA-SA-10-005

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This briefing sheet lists the collective resources from briefing sheets 2-16. It is by no means an exhaustive list of all available resources within each subject or domain area, but rather a summary of resources and references used by the authors while developing the individual issue briefs.

BRIEF 2

Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS). Accessible via http://www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov/Main/index.aspx.

FHWA Office of Safety Intersection Safety Website: crash facts. Accessible via http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/crash_facts/#data.

Traffic Safety Facts 2007 (Final Edition), NHTSA. Accessible via http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/TSF2007FE.PDF.

BRIEF 3

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Washington, DC, USA: Federal Highway Administration, 2003. Accessible via http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov.

Traffic Engineering Handbook, 6th Edition. Washington, DC, USA: Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2009.

BRIEF 4

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Washington, DC, USA: Federal Highway Administration, 2003. Accessible via http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov.

A review of published research on multi-way stop intersections. Accessible via http://www.ite.org/traffic/documents/AHA99B49.pdf.

Ellison, James W., P.E. Case Study: Failure to Stop at a Stop Sign: A Progressive Approach. Accessible via http://www.ite.org/library/IntersectionSafety/Ellison.pdf.

Neuman, Timothy R., R. Pfefer, K.L. Slack, K. Kennedy Hardy, D.W. Harwood, I.B. Potts, D.J. Torbic, and E.R. Kohlman Rabbani. NCHRP Report 500, Volume 5: A Guide for Addressing Unsignalized Intersection Collisions. Washington, DC: Transportation Research Board, 2003.

Intersection Safety Brief #8: Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness to Make Intersections Safer. Federal Highway Administration/Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2009.

BRIEF 5

Bahar, G., Parkhill, M., Hauer, E., Council, F., Persaud, B., Zegeer, C., Elvik, R., Smiley, A., and Scott, B. "Prepare Parts I and II of a Highway Safety Manual: Knowledge Base for Part II." Unpublished material from NCHRP Project 17-27, 2007

Felipe, E., Mitic, D., and Zein, S. R., "Safety Benefits of Additional Primary Signal Heads." Vancouver, B.C., Insurance Corporation of British Columbia. G.D. Hamilton Associates, 1998.

FHWA and Institute of Transportation Engineers, "Making Intersections Safer: A Toolbox of Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running." FHWA/TX-03/4027-2, Texas Transportation Institute, 2002.

Gan, A., Shen, J., and Rodriguez, A., "Update of Florida Crash Reduction Factors and Countermeasures to Improve the Development of District Safety Improvement Projects." Florida Department of Transportation, 2005.

Harkey, D., Srinivasan, R., Zegeer, C., Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Eccles, K., Council, F. M., and McGee, H., "Crash Reduction Factors for Traffic Engineering and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Improvements: State of Knowledge Report." Research Results Digest, Vol. 299, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 2005.

Hauer, E., "Left Turn Protection, Safety, Delay and Guidelines: A Literature Review." Accessible via www.roadsafetyresearch.com.

Institute of Transportation Engineers, "Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness for Intersection Crashes." Briefing Sheet 8, ITE, FHWA, 2004.

Lee, J. C., Wortman, R. H., Hook, D. J., and Poppe, M. J., "Comparative Analysis of Leading and Lagging Left Turns." Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation, 1991.

Lyon, C, Haq, A., Persaud, B. N., and Kodama, S. T., "Development of Safety Performance Functions for Signalized Intersections in a Large Urban Area and Application to Evaluation of Left Turn Priority Treatment." 2005 TRB 84th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#05-2192,Washington, DC, 2005.

Markowitz, F., Sciortino, S., Fleck, J.L., and Yee, B.M., "Pedestrian Countdown Signals: Experience with an Extensive Pilot Installation." ITE Journal, January 2006. Updated by Memorandum, Olea, R., "Collision changes 2002-2004 and countdown signals," February 7th, 2006.

McGee, H., Taori, S., and Persaud, B. N., "NCHRP Report 491: Crash Experience Warrant for Traffic Signals." Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, 2003.

Morena, D. A., Wainwright, W. S., and Ranck, F., "Older Drivers at a Crossroads." Public Roads, Vol. 70, No. 4, Washington, D.C., FHWA, 2007.

Pernia, J.C., Lu, J.J., Weng, M.X., Xie, X., and Yu, Z., "Development of Models to Quantify the Impacts of Signalization on Intersection Crashes." Florida Department of Transportation, 2002.

Polanis, S. F., "Low-Cost Safety Improvements. Chapter 27, The Traffic Safety Toolbox: A Primer on Traffic Safety," Washington, DC, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1999.

Retting, R. A., Chapline, J. F., and Williams, A. F., "Changes in Crash Risk Following Re-timing of Traffic Signal Change Intervals." Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 34, No. 2, Oxford, N.Y., Pergamon Press, 2002.

Rodegerdts, L. A., Nevers, B., and Robinson, B., "Signalized Intersections: Informational Guide." FHWA-HRT-04-091, 2004.

Sayed, T., Leur, P. , and Pump, J., "Safety Impact of Increased Traffic Signal Backboards Conspicuity." 2005 TRB 84th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#05-16, Washington, DC, 2005.

Sayed, T., El Esawey, M., and Pump, J., "Evaluating the Safety Impacts of Improving Signal Visibility at Urban Signalized Intersections." 2007 TRB 86th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#07-135, Washington, DC, 2007.

Zimmerman, K. and Bonneson, J., "In-Service Evaluation of the Detection-Control System for Isolated High-Speed Intersections." 2006 TRB 85th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#06-1252, Washington, DC, 2006.

Harkey, D., Srinivasan, R., Baek, J., Council, F. M., Eccles, K., Lefler, N., Gross, F., Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Hauer, E., and Bonneson, J. A., "Crash Reduction Factors for Traffic Engineering and ITS Improvements," NCHRP Report No. 617, 2008.

Highway Safety Manual 1st Edition. AASHTO, Washington, DC. April 2009 Draft.

BRIEF 6

Field Guide for Inspecting Signalized Intersections to Reduce Red Light Running. FHWA-SA-05-008. FHWA, Washington, DC, 20005. Accessible via http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/redlight/tech/fguide_isirlr/.

Association of Selected Intersection Factors with Red-Light Running Crashes, FHWA-RD-00-112. FHWA, Research, Development, and Technology, Turner-Fairbank Highway Research Center, Washington, DC, 2000. Accessible via http://www.hsisinfo.org/pdf/00-112.pdf.

A History of the Yellow and All-Red Intervals for Traffic Signals. Institute of Transportation of Engineers, Washington, DC, 2001.

Making Intersections Safer: A Toolbox of Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running. FHWA/Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 2003. Accessible via http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/redlight/cameras/rlr_report/rlrbook.pdf.

Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running. Report 4027-2. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, 2002 Accessible via http://tcd.tamu.edu/Documents/4027-2.pdf.

Evaluation of Enforcement Issues and Safety Statistics Related to Red Light Running. Research Report 4196-1. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, 2003. Accessible via http://tcd.tamu.edu/Documents/4196-1.pdf.

BRIEF 7

Analysis of Red Light Violation Data Collected from Intersections Equipped with Red Light Photo Enforcement Cameras. John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, DOT-VNTSC-NHTSA-05-01, 2006.

Guidance for Using Red Light Cameras, FHWA-SA-03-018. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2003. Accessible via http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/enforce/guidance03/Guidancereport.pdf.

Impact of Red Light Camera Enforcement on Crash Experience. NCHRP Synthesis 310, TRB, Washington, DC, 2002. Accessible via http://www.trb.org/publications/nchrp/nchrp_syn_310.pdf.

"Q&A Red Light Cameras as of Feb¬ruary 2009." Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, Washington, DC, 2009. Accessible via http://www.iihs.org/research/qanda/rlr.html.

C.A. Quiroga, et al. Red Light Running – A Policy Review. Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, 2003. Accessible via http://tti.tamu.edu/publications/catalog/record_detail.htm?id=26571.

National Campaign to Stop Red Light Running (NCSRLR). Accessible via http://www.stopredlightrunning.com.

BRIEF 8

Agent, K. R., Stamatiadis, N., and Jones, S., "Development of Accident Reduction Factors." KTC-96-13, Kentucky Transportation Cabinet, (1996).

Bahar, G., Parkhill, M., Hauer, E., Council, F., Persaud, B., Zegeer, C., Elvik, R., Smiley, A., and Scott, B. "Prepare Parts I and II of a Highway Safety Manual: Knowledge Base for Part II." Unpublished material from NCHRP Project 17-27, (May 2007).

Bonneson, J., Zimmerman, K., and Fitzpatrick, K., "Roadway Safety Design Synthesis." Texas Transportation Institute for Texas DOT, (2005).

Brich, S. C. and Cottrell Jr., B. H., "Guidelines for the Use of No U-Turn and No-Left Turn Signs." VTRC 95-R5, Richmond, Virginia Department of Transportation, (1994).

De Brabander, B. and Vereeck, L., "Safety Effects of Roundabouts in Flanders: Signal type, speed limits and vulnerable road users." AAP-1407, Elsevier Science, (2006).

Elvik, R. and Vaa, T., "Handbook of Road Safety Measures." Oxford, United Kingdom, Elsevier, (2004).

Felipe, E., Mitic, D., and Zein, S. R., "Safety Benefits of Additional Primary Signal Heads." Vancouver, B.C., Insurance Corporation of British Columbia; G.D. Hamilton Associates, (1998).

FHWA and Institute of Transportation Engineers, "Making Intersections Safer: A Toolbox of Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red-Light Running." FHWA/TX-03/4027-2, Texas Transportation Institute, (2002).

Gan, A., Shen, J., and Rodriguez, A., "Update of Florida Crash Reduction Factors and Countermeasures to Improve the Development of District Safety Improvement Projects." Florida Department of Transportation, (2005).

Griffin, L. I. and Reinhardt, R. N., "A Review of Two Innovative Pavement Patterns that Have Been Developed to Reduce Traffic Speeds and Crashes." Washington, D.C., AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, (1996).

Harkey, D., Srinivasan, R., Zegeer, C., Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Eccles, K., Council, F. M., and McGee, H., "Crash Reduction Factors for Traffic Engineering and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Improvements: State of Knowledge Report." Research Results Digest, Vol. 299, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, (2005).

Harwood, D. W., Pietrucha, M. T., Wooldridge, M. D., Brydia, R. E., and Fitzpatrick, K., "NCHRP Report 375: Median Intersection Design." Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, (1995).

Harwood, D. W., Council, F. M., Hauer, E., Hughes, W. E., and Vogt, A., "Prediction of the Expected Safety Performance of Rural Two-Lane Highways." FHWARD-99-207, McLean, Va., Federal Highway Administration, (2000).

Harwood, D. W., Bauer, K. M., Potts, I. B., Torbic, D. J., Richard, K. R., Kohlman Rabbani, E. R., Hauer, E., and Elefteriadou, L., "Safety Effectiveness of Intersection Left- and Right-Turn Lanes." FHWA-RD-02-089, McLean, Va., Federal Highway Administration, (2002).

Hauer, E., "Left Turn Protection, Safety, Delay and Guidelines: A Literature Review." www.roadsafetyresearch.com, (2004).

Institute of Transportation Engineers, "Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness for Intersection Crashes." Briefing Sheet 8, ITE, FHWA, 2004.

Lee, J. C., Wortman, R. H., Hook, D. J., and Poppe, M. J., "Comparative Analysis of Leading and Lagging Left Turns." Phoenix, Arizona Department of Transportation, (1991).

Lovell, J. and Hauer, E., "The Safety Effect of Conversion to All-Way Stop Control." Transportation Research Record 1068, Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, (1986) pp. 103-107.

Lyon, C, Haq, A., Persaud, B. N., and Kodama, S. T., "Development of Safety Performance Functions for Signalized Intersections in a Large Urban Area and Application to Evaluation of Left Turn Priority Treatment." 2005 TRB 84th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#05-2192, Washington, D.C., (2005).

Markowitz, F., Sciortino, S., Fleck, J.L., and Yee, B.M., "Pedestrian Countdown Signals: Experience with an Extensive Pilot Installation." Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, January 2006, pp. 43-48. Updated by Memorandum, Olea, R., "Collision changes 2002-2004 and countdown signals," (February 7th, 2006).

McGee, H., Taori, S., and Persaud, B. N., "NCHRP Report 491: Crash Experience Warrant for Traffic Signals." Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, (2003).

McGee, H. W. and Blankenship, M. R., "NCHRP Report 320: Guidelines for Converting Stop to Yield Control at Intersections." Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, (1989).

Miller, J. S., Khandelwal, R, and Garber, N. J., "Safety Impacts of Photo-Red Enforcement at Suburban Signalized Intersections: An Empirical Bayes Approach", Transportation Research Record, No. 1969, Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, (2006), pp. 27-34.

Montella, A., "Safety Reviews of Existing Roads: a Quantitative Safety Assessment Methodology." 2005 TRB 84th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#05-1295, Washington, D.C., (2005).

Morena, D. A., Wainwright, W. S., and Ranck, F., "Older Drivers at a Crossroads." Public Roads, Vol. 70, No. 4, Washington, D.C., FHWA, (2007) pp. 6-15.

Pernia, J.C., Lu, J.J., Weng, M.X., Xie, X., and Yu, Z., "Development of Models to Quantify the Impacts of Signalization on Intersection Crashes." Florida Department of Transportation, (2002).

Persaud, B., Council, F. M., Lyon, C., Eccles, K., and Griffith, M., "Multi-Jurisdictional Safety Evaluation of Red Light Cameras." Transportation Research Record, No. 1922, Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, (2005) pp. 29-37.

Polanis, S. F., "Low-Cost Safety Improvements. Chapter 27, The Traffic Safety Toolbox: A Primer on Traffic Safety," Washington, D.C., Institution of Transportation Engineers (1999) pp. 265-272.

Preston, H. and Schoenecker, T., "Bypass Lane Safety, Operations, and Design Study." MN/RC-2000-14, St. Paul, Minnesota Department of Transportation, (1999).

Retting, R. A., Chapline, J. F., and Williams, A. F., "Changes in Crash Risk Following Re-timing of Traffic Signal Change Intervals." Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 34, No. 2, Oxford, N.Y., Pergamon Press, (2002) pp. 215-220.

Rodegerdts, L. A., Nevers, B., and Robinson, B., "Signalized Intersections: Informational Guide." FHWA-HRT-04-091, (2004).

Rodegerdts, L. A., Blogg, M., Wemple, E., Myers, E., Kyte, M., Dixon, M., List, G., Flannery, A., Troutbeck, R., Brilon, W., Wu, N., Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Harkey, D., and Carter, E. C., "Roundabouts in the United States." NCHRP Report 572, Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, (2007).

Sayed, T., Leur, P. , and Pump, J., "Safety Impact of Increased Traffic Signal Backboards Conspicuity." 2005 TRB 84th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#05-16, Washington, D.C., (2005).

Sayed, T., El-Basyouny, K., and Pump, J., "Safety Evaluation of Stop Sign In-Fill Program." Transportation Research Record 1953, Washington, D.C., Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, (2006) pp. 201-210.

Sayed, T., El Esawey, M., and Pump, J., "Evaluating the Safety Impacts of Improving Signal Visibility at Urban Signalized Intersections." 2007 TRB 86th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#07-135, Washington, D.C., (2007).

Shin, K. and Washington, S., "The Impact of Red Light Cameras on Safety in Arizona." 2006 TRB 85th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#06-1514, Washington, D.C., (2006).

Turner, B., "Crash reduction estimates for road safety treatments." Vermont, Australia, ARRB Group, (2007).

Xu, L., "Right Turns Followed by U-Turns Versus Direct Left Turns: A Comparison of Safety Issues." ITE Journal, Vol. 71, No. 11, Washington, D.C., Institute of Transportation Engineers, (2001) pp. 36-43.

Zegeer, C., Stewart, R., Huang, H., and Lagerwey, P., "Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines," FHWA-RD-01-075, (March 2002).

Zimmerman, K. and Bonneson, J., "In-Service Evaluation of the Detection-Control System for Isolated High-Speed Intersections." 2006 TRB 85th Annual Meeting: Compendium of Papers CD-ROM, Vol. TRB#06-1252, Washington, D.C., (2006).

Harkey, D., Srinivasan, R., Baek, J., Council, F. M., Eccles, K., Lefler, N., Gross, F., Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Hauer, E., and Bonneson, J. A., "Crash Reduction Factors for Traffic Engineering and ITS Improvements," NCHRP Report No. 617, (2008).

Van Houten, R. and Malenfant, J. E., "Effects of a Driver Enforcement Program on Yielding to Pedestrians," Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, No. 37,(2004) pp. 351- 363.

Highway Safety Manual, 1st Edition. AASHTO. Washington, DC. April 2009 Draft.

BRIEF 9

Desktop Reference for Crash Reduction Factors, Publication No. FHWA-SA-08-011. Accessible via http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/tools/crf/resources/fhwasa08011/.

FHWA's Pedestrian and Bicycle Intersection Safety Indices. Accessible via https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/research/safety/pedbike/06130/06130.pdf.

PEDSAFE: The Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System. Accessible via http://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsafe/.

Toolbox of Countermeasures and Their Potential Effectiveness for Pedestrian Crashes. Accessible via http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/tools_solve/ped_tctpepc/ped_tctpepc.pdf.

FHWA Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Analysis Tool (PBCAT). Accessible via http://www.walkinginfo.org/facts/pbcat/download.cfm.

ITE/Partnership for a Walkable America Pedestrian Project Awards. Accessible via http://www.ite.org/activeliving/index.asp.

AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2004.

Florida Department of Transportation Pedestrian and Bicycle Research. Accessible via http://www.dot.state.fl.us/Safety/ped_bike/ped_bike_reports.shtm.

Alternative Treatments for At-Grade Pedestrian Crossings. ITE, Washington, DC, 2001.

Design and Safety of Pedestrian Facilities: An ITE Recommended Practice. ITE, Washington, DC, 1998.

National Traffic Safety Administration Fact Sheets: Pedestrians. Accessible via http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/810994.pdf.

Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Accessible via http://www.walkinginfo.org/.

Pedestrian Mobility and Safety Audit Guide. AARP/ITE, 2009. Accessible via http://www.ite.org/PedAudits/AuditGuide.pdf.

U.S. Access Board, Public Rights-of-Way Webpage. Accessible via http://www.access-board.gov/prowac.

BRIEF 10

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Washington, DC, USA: Federal Highway Administration, 2003. Accessible via http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov.

Safe Mobility for Older People Notebook. Accessible via http://www.aaafoundation.org/pdf/external/SafeMobility.pdf.

University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute: Promising Approaches for Enhancing Elderly Mobility. Accessible via http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/1536.

University of Florida: Florida Senior Safety Resource Center. Accessible via http://fssrc.phhp.ufl.edu/.

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety: Senior Driver Web Site. Accessible via http://www.seniordrivers.org/home/.

AAA National: AAA Roadwise Review: A Tool to Help Seniors Drive Safely Longer. Accessible via http://www.aaapublicaffairs.com/Main/Default.asp?CategoryID=3&SubCategoryID=38&ContentID=315.

University of Michigan, Transportation Research Institute: Driving Decisions Workbook. Accessible via http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/handle/2027.42/1321.

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration: Active Aging Programs. Accessible via http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/olddrive .

American Society on Aging (ASA): Road Map to Driving Wellness. Accessible via http://asaging.org/cdc/module4/home.cfm.

AARP Older Driver Safety. Accessible via http://www.aarp.org/families/driver_safety/.

AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety: Older Driver Involvement in Injury Crashes in Texas, 1975-1999. Accessible via http://www.aaafoundation.org/multimedia/presentations/SeniorInjury.pdf.

U.S. DOT, Safe Mobility for a Maturing Society: Challenges and Opportunities, November 2003. Accessible via http://www.eyes.uab.edu/safemobility/SafeMobility.pdf.

NCHRP REPORT 500: Guidance for Implementation of the AASHTO Strategic Highway Safety Plan, Volume 9: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Older Drivers, 2004. Accessible via http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_500v9.pdf.

AARP Public Policy Institute: Planning Complete Streets for an Aging America.

FHWA Intersection Fatality Comparison 2006 vs. 2007. Accessible via Http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/crash_facts/docs/inter_fats05_06.pdf.

U.S. Census Bureau: Historical Population Estimates. Accessible via http://www.census.gov/statab/hist/HS-01.pdf.

FHWA Older Driver Highway Design Handbook. Jan. 1998. Publication FHWA-RD-97-135. Accessible via http://ntl.bts.gov/DOCS/older/home/.

Traffic Engineering Handbook, 6th Edition. ITE, Washington, DC, 2009.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, GA: Department of Health and Human Service. Accessible via http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/brfss/page.asp?yr=1997&state=US&cat=IC#IC.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS) [Online]. (2006). National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (producer). Accessible via http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/wisqars.

Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010. Second Edition. With understanding and improving health and objectives for improving health. 2 vols. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office; 2000.

Hakamies-Blomquist L. Safety of Older Persons in Traffic in Transportation in an Aging Society: A Decade of Experience. Technical Papers and Reports from a Conference: Bethesda, MD; Nov. 7-9, 1999. Washington, DC, Transportation Research Board; 2004.

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). Fatality facts, older people. Arlington, VA: IIHS; 2007. Accessible via http://www.iihs.org/research/fatality_facts_2007/olderpeople.html [cited 2006 Nov 21].

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Department of Transportation. Traffic Safety Facts 2007: Older Population. Washington, DC: NHTSA; 2008. Accessible via http://www.nhtsa.gov/portal/site/nhtsa/menuitem.31176b9b03647a189ca8e410dba046a0/.

Owsley C. Driver Capabilities in Transportation in an Aging Society: A Decade of Experience. Technical Papers and Reports from a Conference: Bethesda, MD; Nov. 7-9, 1999. Washington, DC, Transportation Research Board; 2004.

BRIEF 11

AASHTO Guide for the Planning, Design and Operations of Pedestrian Facilities, AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2004.

Barlow, Janet, Pat Cannon, Dan Dawson, et. al. Building a True Community: Final Report. Public Rights-of-Way Access Advisory Committee, for the U.S. Access Board, February 2001.

Bentzen, Billie Louise, Ph.D., Janet M. Barlow, COMS, and Lee S. Tabor. Detectable Warnings: Synthesis Of U.S. And International Practice. May 2000. Accessible via http://www.access-board.gov/research/DWSynthesis/report.htm.

FHWA. Designing Sidewalks and Trails for Access: Best Practices Guide Part II of II. Accessible via https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/sidewalk2/.

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Washington, DC, USA: Federal Highway Administration, 2003. Accessible via http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov. Information on Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS), Chapter 4E and Temporary Traffic Control Elements, Chapter 6D.

FHWA, National Highway Institute. Accessible via http://www.nhi.fhwa.dot.gov/Home.aspx.

ITE Special Report: Accessible Public Rights-of-Way, Planning and Design for Alteration. Public Rights-of-Way Advisory Committee. Washington, DC, 2007.

ITE. Traffic Control Device Handbook. Washington, DC. Pedestrians, Chapter 13, 2001

BRIEF 12

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, Fourth Edition. Washington, DC: AASHTO, 2004.

Institute of Transportation Engineers. Traffic Engineering Handbook, 5th Edition. Washington, DC: ITE, 1999.

NCHRP Report 500, Volume 5: A Guideline for Addressing Unsignalized Intersection Collisions. Washington, DC: TRB, 2003.

NCHRP Report 500, Volume 9: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Older Drivers. Washington, DC: TRB, 2004.

NCHRP Report 500, Volume 10: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Pedestrians. Washington, DC: TRB, 2004.

NCHRP Report 500, Volume 12: A Guide for Reducing Collisions at Signalized Intersections. Washington, DC: TRB, 2004.

NCHRP Report 500, Volume 18: A Guide for Reducing Collisions Involving Bicycles. Washington, DC: TRB, 2008.

Dewar, R. and Olson, P. Human Factors in Traffic Safety, Second Edition, Lawyers & Judges Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 2007.

Shinar, David. Traffic Safety and Human Behavior, First Edition, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 2007.

Highway Safety Manual, First Edition. Washington, DC: TRB, To be published.

Lunenfeld, H. and Alexander, G.J. A User's Guide to Positive Guidance, 3rd Edition. Washington, DC: FHWA, 1990.

NCHRP Report 600A: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems, Collection A: Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 13, 22, 23, 26. Washington, DC: TRB, 2008.

Driver Distraction: A Review of the Current State-of-Knowledge. Report No. DOT-HS-810-704. Washington, DC: NHTSA, 2008.

NCHRP Report 572: Roundabouts in the United States. Washington, DC: TRB, 2007.

Roundabouts: An Informational Guide. Report No. FHWL-RD-00-67, Washington, DC: 2000.

The 100-Car Naturalistic Driving Study: Phase II – Results of the 100-Car Field Experiment, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Report No. DOT-HS-810-593.

BRIEF 13

Transportation Research Board. Access Management Manual. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 2003.

Najm, W. G., J. D. Smith, and D. L. Smith. Analysis of Crossing Path Crashes. Report No. DOT-VNTSC-NHTSA-01-03. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, DC, July 2001.

Iowa Department of Transportation and the Iowa Highway Research Board. Access Management Awareness Program, Phase II Report, the Iowa DOT Project TR-402 CTRE Management Project 97-1. Center for Transportation Research and Education, Ames, IA, December 1997.

Schultz, G. G., C. G. Allen, and D. L. Eggett. Crashes in the Vicinity of Major Crossroads. Report No. UT-08.25. Research and Development Division, Utah Department of Transportation, December 2008.

Gluck, J., H. S. Levinson, and V. Stover. NCHRP Report 420: Impacts of Access Management Techniques. Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1999.

American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. Washington, DC: AASHTO, 2004.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Benefits of Access Management. Document Number FHWA-OP-03-066. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2003.

Institute of Transportation Engineers, Traffic Engineering Handbook, 6th Edition. Washington, DC, 2009.

Traffic Safety Tool Box: A Primer on Traffic Safety. Washington, DC, 1999.

Urban Street Geometric Design Handbook. Washington, DC, 2008.

Parsonson, P. S., M. Walters, and J. S. Fincher. Effect on Safety of Replacing an Arterial Continuous Two-Way Left-Turn Lane with a Raised Median. National Conference on Access Management. TRB Access Management Conference, Vail, CO, 1993.

Parsonson, P.S., M. Walters, and J. S. Fincher. "Georgia Study Confirms the Continuing Safety Advantage of Raised Medians over Continuous Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes." National Conference on Access Management. Portland, OR, 2000.

Koepke, F. J., and H. S. Levinson. NCHRP Report 348: Access Management Guidelines for Activity Centers. Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1992.

Driveway Handbook. Florida Department of Transportation, Tallahassee, FL, March 2005.

Bonneson, J., K. Zimmerman, and K. Fitzpatrick. Roadway Safety Design Synthesis. Texas Department of Transportation, 2005.

BRIEF 14

Robinson, B. W., L. Rodegerdts, W. Scarbrough, W. Kittelson, R. Troutbeck, W. Brilon, L. Bondzio, K. Courage, M. Kyte, J. Mason, A. Flannery, E. Myers, J. Bunker, and G. Jacquemart. Roundabouts: An Informational Guide. Report FHWA-RD-00-067. FHWA, U.S. Department of Transportation, June 2000. (This document is being updated, with publication likely in 2010.)

United States Access Board. "Pedestrian Access to Modern Roundabouts: Design and Operational Issues for Pedestrians who are Blind." Accessible via http://www.access-board.gov/research/roundabouts/bulletin.htm.

Rodegerdts, L. A., M. Blogg, E. Wemple, E. Myers, M. Kyte, M. Dixon, G. List, A. Flannery, R. Troutbeck, W. Brilon, N. Wu, B. Persaud, C. Lyon, D. Harkey, and E.C. Carter. NCHRP Report 572: Roundabouts in the United States. Washington, DC, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 2007.

Cunningham, R. B. Maryland's Roundabouts: Accident Experience and Economic Evaluation. Traffic Development and Support Division, Office of Traffic and Safety, Maryland State Highway Administration, Maryland Department of Transportation, 2007.

United States Access Board. "Revised Draft Guidelines for Accessible Public Rights-of-Way." November 23, 2005. Accessible via http://www.access-board.gov/prowac/draft.htm.

BRIEF 15

Federal Highway Administration. Road Safety Audit Guidelines. FHWA-SA-06-06, 2005. Accessible via http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/rsa/guidelines.

Transportation Research Board. Road Safety Audits: A Synthesis of Highway Practice. NCHRP Synthesis Report 336, Washington, DC: TRB, 2004. Accessible via http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_syn_336.pdf.

Transportation Research Board. Roadway Safety Tools for Local Agencies, NCHRP Synthesis Report 321. Washington, DC: TRB, 2003. Accessible via http://onlinepubs.trb.org/Onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_syn_321.pdf.

FHWA, Pedestrian Road Safety Audit Guidelines and Prompt Lists. FHWA-SA-07-007. Accessible via http://drusilla.hsrc.unc.edu/cms/downloads/PedRSA.reduced.pdf.

Austroads. Road Safety Audit, 2nd Edition. Accessible via http://www.rsatoolkit.com.au/.

Road Safety Audit Guidelines, University of New Brunswick Transportation Group, Department of Civil Engineering, Fredericton, New Brunswick.

"NEW Guidelines and Training for Road Safety Audits," Transportation Safety Planning newsletter: January 2007 issue; page 3. Accessible via http://tsp.trb.org/assets/January%20FHWA%20newsletter_V2.pdf.

Louisa Ward and Margaret Gibbs. "Safety Check." Roads & Bridges magazine, June 2006. Accessible via http://www.roadsbridges.com/Safety-Check-article7071.

Chris Brown and Tricia Williams. "Being Proactive" Roads & Bridges magazine, June 2006. Accessible via http://www.roadsbridges.com/Being-Proactive-article7074.

RSAs For Safety. Accessible via https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/publications/publicroads/06nov/05.cfm.

BRIEF 16

Work Zone Best Practices Guidebook. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2000.

The National Work Zone Safety Information Clearinghouse. Accessible via http://www.workzonesafety.org.

American Traffic Safety Services Association (ATSSA). Accessible via http://www.atssa.com.

Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Washington, DC, USA: Federal Highway Administration, 2003. Accessible via http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov.

Proposed changes for the 2009 MUTCD. Accessible via http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/resources/proposed_amend/.

FHWA Work Zone Mobility and Safety Program. Accessible via http://ops.fhwa.dot.gov/wz/index.asp.




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