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FHWA Home / Safety / Pedestrian & Bicycle / Synthesis of Methods for Estimating Pedestrian and Bicyclist Exposure to Risk at Areawide Levels and on Specific Transportation Facilities

Synthesis of Methods for Estimating Pedestrian and Bicyclist Exposure to Risk at Areawide Levels and on Specific Transportation Facilities

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January 2017
Publication No. FHWA-SA-17-041

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Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.
FHWA-SA-17-041
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
Synthesis of Methods for Estimating Pedestrian and Bicyclist Exposure to Risk at Areawide Levels and on Specific Transportation Facilities
5. Report Date
January 2017
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Shawn Turner, Ipek Sener, Michael Martin, Subasish Das, Eva Shipp, Robert Hampshire, Kay Fitzpatrick, Lisa Molnar, Ravi Wijesundera, Mike Colety, Stewart Robinson
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Texas A&M Transportation Institute, College Station, TX 77843-3135
University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute
Kimley-Horn and Associates, Inc.
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
DFTH6116D00004, TTI Task Order #2
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Safety
1200 New Jersey Ave SE
Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Task 3 Synthesis:
Aug. 2016 - Jan. 2017
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
15. Supplementary Notes
16. Abstract

This report summarizes the variety of methods used to estimate and evaluate exposure to risk in pedestrian and bicyclist safety analyses. In the literature, the most common definition of risk was a measure of the probability of a crash to occur given exposure to potential crash events. There was also consensus on a theoretical definition of exposure as a measure of the number of potential opportunities for a crash to occur. However, there is wide divergence on operational definitions of exposure, and an even wider range of exposure measures being used in practice. Geographic scale is a critical element in most exposure analyses, and most analyses reviewed could be grouped into one of four scales: 1) regional (e.g., city, county, state); 2) network (e.g., traffic analysis zone, Census tract, Census block group); 3) road segment; and, 4) point (e.g., mid-block or intersection street crossing). This report summarizes numerous examples of exposure estimation methods at these different geographic scales, and discusses the data sources and analytic methods used to estimate exposure in these different geographic scales. Other pedestrian and bicyclist risk factors besides exposure also are cataloged.

17. Key Words
Pedestrian and bicyclist exposure to risk, exposure scale, risk factors, pedestrian and bicyclist counts, demand estimation
18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions.
19. Security Classif.
(of this report)

Unclassified
20. Security Classif.
(of this page)

Unclassified
21. No. of Pages
91
22. Price

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized.

Table of Contents

List of Figures

List of Tables

List of Abbreviations

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Page last modified on March 31, 2017
Safe Roads for a Safer Future - Investment in roadway safety saves lives
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