U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
202-366-4000


Skip to content
Facebook iconYouTube iconTwitter iconFlickr iconLinkedInInstagram

Safety

FHWA Home / Safety / Proven Safety Countermeasures / Leading Pedestrian Interval

Leading Pedestrian Interval

A leading pedestrian interval (LPI) gives pedestrians the opportunity to enter the crosswalk at an intersection 3-7 seconds before vehicles are given a green indication. Pedestrians can better establish their presence in the crosswalk before vehicles have priority to turn right or left.

LPIs provide the following benefits:

  • Increased visibility of crossing pedestrians.
  • Reduced conflicts between pedestrians and vehicles.
  • Increased likelihood of motorists yielding to pedestrians.
  • Enhanced safety for pedestrians who may be slower to start into the intersection.
Photo: This photograph, taken from the end of a crosswalk, shows a wheelchair-using pedestrian establishing a presence in the crosswalk during the Leading Pedestrian Interval. A pedestrian signal on the far side of the crosswalk indicates a WALK phase, while the traffic signal facing traffic in the parallel direction shows RED. Yellow tactile curb ramps are visible at both ends of the crosswalk.

An LPI allows a pedestrian to establish a presence in the crosswalk before vehicles are given a green indication. Source: FHWA

FHWA's Handbook for Designing Roadways for the Aging Population recommends the use of the LPI at intersections with high turning vehicle volumes. Transportation agencies should refer to the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (Section 4E.06) for guidance on LPI timing and ensure that pedestrian signals are accessible for all users. Costs for implementing LPIs are very low when only signal timing alteration is required.

Sources

1. Goughnour, E., D. Carter, C. Lyon, B. Persaud, B. Lan, P. Chun, I. Hamilton, and K. Signor. "Safety Evaluation of Protected Left-Turn Phasing and Leading Pedestrian Intervals on Pedestrian Safety." Report No. FHWA-HRT-18-044. Federal Highway Administration. (October 2018)

Safety Benefit:

13%

reduction in pedestrian-vehicle
crashes at intersections.1

Photo: This photograph, take from the passenger side of a right turning vehicle, shows a pedestrian establishing a presence in the crosswalk during the Leading Pedestrian Interval. A pedestrian signal on the far side of the crosswalk indicates the WALK phase, while the accompanying overhead traffic signal shows RED. The right turning vehicle would otherwise conflict with the crosswalk.

LPIs reduce potential conflicts between pedestrians and turning vehicles. Source: FHWA


Guidance Memos NEW

Read the Guidance Memoranda on Promoting the Implementation of Proven Safety Countermeasures.

2021 | 2017 | 2012 | 2008

Page last modified on October 28, 2021
Safe Roads for a Safer Future - Investment in roadway safety saves lives
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000