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FHWA Home / Safety / Tools and Technology

Desktop Reference for Crash Reduction Factors

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Tables for Pedestrian Crash Reduction Factors

Table 10. Signalization Countermeasures

Countermeasures Crash Type Crash Severity Area Type Ref Obs Effectiveness
Crash Reduction Factor/Function Std Error Range Study Type
Low High
SIGNALIZATION COUNTERMEASURES
Add exclusive pedestrian phasing Pedestrian All   28   34   7 60  
Convert permissive or permissive/protected to protected only left-turn phasing All All   62   1 7     Empirical Before-After/Expert Panel
Left-turn All   62   99 1     Expirical Before-After/Expert Panel
Convert permissive to permissive/protected left-turn phasing All All   62   0       Expert Panel
Left-turn All   62   16 2     Expert Panel
Improve signal timing [to intervals specified by the ITE Determing Vehicle Change Intervals: A Proposed Recommended Practice (1985)] All Fatal/Injury   49   12 9     Experimental Design (Case-Control Study)
Pedestrian Fatal/Injury   49   37       Experimental Design (Case-Control Study)
Install pedestrian countdown signal heads Pedestrian Fatal/Injury Urban (San Francisco) 32   25        
Install pedestrian signal All All   15   20        
Pedestrian All   15   53        
Pedestrian All   5   0        
All All   15   25        
All All   15   15        
Pedestrian All   15   55        
Pedestrian All   15   50        
Modify signal phasing (implement a leading pedestrian interval) Pedestrian All   28   5        
Remove unwarranted signals (one-way street) Pedestrian All   46   17       Comparison Group Before-After

Table 11. Geometric Countermeasures

Countermeasures Crash Type Crash Severity Area Type Ref Obs Effectiveness
Crash Reduction Factor/Function Std Error Range Study Type
Low High
GEOMETRIC COUNTERMEASURES
Convert unsignalized intersection to roundabout Pedestrian Fatal/Injury Urban 11   27 12 44 3  
Convert intersection to roundabout Pedestrian All   55   89        
Install pedestrian overpass/underpass Pedestrian All   15   86        
Pedestrian All   1 14 90   60 95  
Pedestrian Fatal/Injury   15   90        
Pedestrian PDO   15   90        
Pedestrian All   15   100        
Pedestrian All   15   67        
Pedestrian All   15   5        
Pedestrian All   15   90        
Install pedestrian overpass/underpass (unsignalized intersection) Pedestrian All   28   13        
Install raised median Pedestrian All   15   25        
Install raised median (marked crosswalk) Pedestrian All   60   46        
Install raised median (unmarked crosswalk) Pedestrian All   60   39        
Install raised median (unsignalized intersection) Pedestrian All   28   69        
Install raised pedestrian crossing All All   5   30 67     Meta-Analysis
All Fatal/Injury   5   36 54     Meta-Analysis
Pedestrian All   28   8        
Install refuge islands Pedestrian All   28   56        
Install sidewalk (to avoid walking along roadway) Pedestrian All   15   74        
Pedestrian All   36   88   43 99 Case-Control Study
Pedestrian All   15   75        
Pedestrian All   15   89        
Pedestrian All   15   65        
Pedestrian All   15   65        
Narrow cross section (4 to 3 lanes with two way left-turn lanes) All All Urban 62   29 2     EB Before-After
Provide paved shoulder (of at least 4 ft) (to avoid walking along roadway) Pedestrian All   15   71        

Table 12. Signs/Markings/Operational Countermeasures

Countermeasures Crash Type Crash Severity Area Type Ref Obs Effectiveness
Crash Reduction Factor/Function Std Error Range Study Type
Low High
SIGNS/MARKINGS/OPERATIONAL COUNTERMEASURES
Add intersection lighting All All   62   4       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
All Injury   62   6       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
Night All   62   21       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
Night Injury   62   29       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
Add segment lighting All All   62   6       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
All Injury   62   8       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
Night All   62   20       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
Night Injury   62   29       Meta Analysis/Expert Panel
Convert two-way to all-way STOP control Pedestrian All   15   39        
Pedestrian All   21 69 19       Before-After with Likelihood Functions
Pedestrian All Urban 30   39       Simple Before-After
Improve lighting at intersections Pedestrian Fatal   13   78 87     Meta-Analysis
Pedestrian Injury   13   42 18     Meta-Analysis
Improve pavement friction Pedestrian All   15   10        
Improve pavement friction (skid treatment with overlay) Pedestrian Fatal/Injury   15   3        
Increase enforcement related to motorist yielding in marked crosswalks combined with a public education campaign Pedestrian All   63   23        
Increase enforcement to reduce speed Pedestrian All   28   70        
Install far-side bus stops (signalized intersection) Pedestrian All   28   1        
Install object markers Pedestrian All   15   29        
Install school zone warning signs All All   15   18        
All All   15   15        
All All   15   20        
Al All   15   15        
All All   15   20        
Permit right-turn-on-red Pedestrian All New Orleans 5   -81 88     Simple Before-After
Pedestrian All New York 5   -43 24     Simple Before-After
Pedestrian All Ohio 5   -57 31     Simple Before-After
Pedestrian All Wisconsin 5   -108 51     Simple Before-After
Prohibit left-turns Pedestrian All   15   10        
Remove marked unprotected crosswalks from arterial intersections Pedestrian All Urban 5   73        
Restrict parking near intersections (to off-street) Pedestrian All   15   30        

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Page last modified on October 15, 2014.
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Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000