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HSIP National Summary Baseline Report: 2009-2012

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Disclaimer/Quality Assurance

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification or regulation. The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names may appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Table of Contents

Background
HSIP Funding
HSIP Project Summary
Conclusion
References
Appendix A: Full Description of HSIP Improvement Categories
Appendix B: Number of highway safety improvement projects per improvement category
Appendix C: Cost of highway safety improvement projects per improvement category
Appendix D: Full Description of SHSP Emphasis Areas

List of Tables

Table 1: Final HSIP Apportionments 2009-2012
Table 2: Total Number and Cost of Projects by Year
Table 3: Average Cost per Project and Percentage of Cost Reported by Improvement Category
Table 4: Number of HSIP Projects by SHSP Emphasis Area per Year

List of Figures

Figure 1: Number of projects per improvement category (2009-2012)
Figure 2: Cost of project (millions) per improvement category (2009-2012)
Figure 3: Number of HSIP projects per SHSP emphasis area.

Background

The Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) is a core Federal-aid program with an objective of achieving a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads through the implementation of highway safety improvement projects. The HSIP, similar to other Federal-aid programs, is a federally-funded, state administered program. The FHWA establishes the HSIP requirements via 23 CFR 924, and the States develop and administer a program to best meet their needs.

The HSIP requires a data-driven, strategic approach to improving highway safety on all public roads that focuses on performance. To obligate HSIP funds, each State shall:

The Office of the Inspector General (OIG) conducted an audit of the Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) in 2012.The audit found that "FHWA Provides Sufficient Guidance and Assistance to Implement the Highway Safety Improvement Program but Could Do More to Assess Program Results." The OIG recommended that FHWA annually compile and report data, such as number, type, and cost of HSIP projects to compare the HSIP's national impact across years.

The HSIP National Summary Baseline Report is not intended to compare states; rather to illustrate how the states are collectively implementing the HSIP to reduce fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads across the nation. The baseline report presents HSIP funding and project data from 2009 through 2012. The 2009-2012 time period aligns with the effective date of the most recent HSIP Reporting Guidance, beginning May 15, 2009 and extending through SAFETEA-LU and related extensions, as well as corresponding FHWA efforts to compile HSIP project data nationally. The information collected in the 2009-2012 annual HSIP reports includes, in general, a discussion of each State's:

The HSIP National Summary Baseline Report compiles and summarizes aggregate information related to the States progress in implementing HSIP projects. Progress in implementing HSIP projects is described based on the amount of HSIP funds available and the number and general listing of projects initiated during the reporting period. In future years, these national summaries may be expanded to include additional information of national interest.

HSIP Funding

SAFETEA-LU authorized approximately $1.2 billion annually for HSIP from 2006 through 2009, with similar amounts authorized via extension acts through 2012. HSIP funds are apportioned to States based on the following factors:

Each State's SAFETEA-LU apportionment of HSIP funds was also subject to a set-aside for construction and operational safety improvements on High-Risk Rural Roads. HSIP apportionment data from 2009-2012 (consistent with the project data presented in the HSIP National Summary Baseline Report) is presented in Table 1 below. The apportionment figures represent the final HSIP apportionment after all set-asides and take-downs.

Table 1: Final HSIP Apportionments 2009-2012

Year Final HSIP
Apportionment
2009 $1,273,360,813
2010 $1,382,502,396
2011 $1,456,740,847
2012 $1,351,978,834

The final HSIP apportionment represents the amount of funding available to States for the advancement of highway safety improvement projects. A summary of HSIP projects obligated from 2009-2012 is provided in the next section.

HSIP Project Summary

States provide project specific information for all projects obligated with HSIP funds during the state-defined reporting period in their annual HSIP reports. An obligation is a commitment – the Federal Government's promise to pay the States for the Federal Share of a project's eligible cost.  The reporting period is defined by the State and can be calendar year, state fiscal year or federal fiscal year.

As per the HSIP Reporting Guidance, project specific information includes:

Limited analysis of the project information can be done because not all states have submitted reports in accordance with the HSIP Reporting Guidance. Full use of the HSIP online reporting tool and compliance with the most recent HSIP reporting guidance will enable more complete and accurate reporting of national HSIP project data. In addition, HSIP projects come in all shapes and sizes. For example, some HSIP projects may be much bigger in scope than others, countermeasure installations across multiple sites, or non-infrastructure projects (i.e. transportation safety planning, data improvements).

Based on the information contained in the 2009-2012 HSIP reports and summarized in Table 2 below, States obligated $6.5B of HSIP funds for more than 9,000 projects over the four-year period. These obligations include not only HSIP funds apportioned during the reporting period (2009-2012), but also HSIP funds available from previous years' apportionments. The average cost per project across all years isnearly $750,000 per project.

Table 2: Total Number and Cost of Projects by Year

Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total
Number of Projects 1684 2386 2523 2429 9022
Number of Projects (with cost info.) 1609 2348 2449 2374 8780
Cost of projects $1.61B $1.46B $1.77B $1.65B $6.50B
Avg. Cost Per Project $1.00M $620,684 $725,550 $695,721 $740,287

Note: Not all states provided cost data for all projects

A further disaggregation of the HSIP project data from 2009 to 2012 is provided in Appendix B (Number of Projects by Improvement Category) and Appendix C (Cost of Projects by Improvement Category). Figures 1 and 2 present this data and summarize the number and cost, respectively, of highway safety improvement projects by improvement category between 2009 and 2012. The improvement categories are consistent with example highway safety improvement projects included in 23 U.S.C. 148, 23 CFR 924 and the HSIP Reporting Guidance. The improvement categories related to railway-highway crossings include those projects obligated using HSIP funds. The HSIP National Summary Baseline Report does not include projects obligated with Railway-Highway Crossing Program funds available under 23 U.S.C. 130.

Please note that multiple improvement categories may apply to each project; however, improvement categories are selected based on the primary purpose of the project. For example, the State recently completed a pavement overlay at intersection A to improve the skid resistance on the approaches to the intersection. This project could be categorized as (1) intersection safety improvement, (4) installation of skid resistant surface and (11) improvement of highway signage and pavement markings. The State chose improvement category (4) installation of skid resistant surface since that was the primary purpose of the project.

For the number of projects per improvement category for all years (2009-2012), four out of five of the top improvement categories (Appendix B) used by the states were:

The remaining top improvement category for 2009 was "(23) Other", for 2010 and 2011 "(3) Installation of rumble strips or other warning devices", and 2012 "(13) Installation of a traffic control or other warning device at a location with high crash potential".

Figure 1: Number of projects per improvement category (2009-2012)

Figure 1: Number of projects per improvement category (2009-2012)

Figure 2: Cost of project (millions) per improvement category (2009-2012)

Figure 2: Cost of project (millions) per improvement category (2009-2012)

For the cost of projects per improvement category for all years (2009-2012), four out of five of the improvement categories (Appendix C) for which states obligated the most HSIP funds were:

The remaining top improvement category for 2009-2011 was "(23) Other and 2012 "(11) Improvement of highway signage and pavement markings". The total cost of projects for all improvement categories has fluctuated each year with 2011 as the highest.

Table 3 shows the average cost per project by improvement category as well as the percentage of projects in each improvement category that reported cost. This percentage was calculated by dividing the total number of projects with cost information by the total number of projects with improvement category information. For example, in 2009 there were 601 projects categorized as (1) intersection safety project but only 572 of these projects had cost information. Therefore, the percentage of projects reporting cost is 95 percent. It is also important to reiterate that HSIP projects come in all shapes and sizes and that some may be much bigger in scope than others. These points might partly explain some of the variation in average cost across years, as shown in Table 3, below. Based on the cost of projects reported by the States, the lowest average cost projects are in the following categories:

Table 3: Average Cost per Project and Percentage of Cost Reported by Improvement Category

Improvement Category 2009 Average Cost 2009 % 2010 Average Cost 2010 % 2011 Average Cost 2011 % 2012 Average Cost 2012 % Average Cost (all years)
(1) Intersection safety project 95 $627,896.59 97 $768,401.82 98 $692,653.61 99 $737,805.14 $884,351.35
(2) Pavement/shoulder widening 98 $1,138,180.29 100 $1,159,550.56 98 $1,164,369.39 100 $1,442,992.48 $2,411,968.24
(3) Rumble strips 100 $277,678.38 100 $299,008.89 100 $665,821.28 100 $360,032.39 $591,147.28
(4) Skid resistant surface 96 $646,000.78 89 $726,957.43 100 $600,117.95 95 $672,593.71 $803,310.16
(5) Ped/bike safety project 100 $460,968.26 95 $407,154.96 99 $363,937.87 94 $448,518.98 $925,071.78
(6) Rail-highway hazard elimination 100 $597,711.76 100 $144,863.00 100 $318,095.06 100 $877,734.37 $3,515,048.60
(7) Rail-highway protective devices 100 $1,899,480.00 100 $318,804.93 100 $918,084.20 100 $619,303.66 $524,169.06
(8) Rail-highway enforcement n/a n/a n/a $2,000,000.00 100 n/a n/a $2,000,000.00 n/a
(9) Traffic calming 100 $1,021,726.20 100 $656,738.53 100 $92,366.50 100 $700,701.28 $661,545.00
(10) Eliminate roadside obstacle 97 $223,563.56 100 $464,126.14 99 $343,520.54 99 $325,909.21 $317,696.97
(11) Improve sign/pavement marking 99 $343,196.73 99 $323,510.58 100 $473,370.42 94 $392,900.46 $405,469.61
(12) Emergency vehicle priority control 67 $37,401.50 100 n/a n/a $114,300.00 100 $852,022.67 $2,404,366.50
(13) Traffic control device 88 $153,491.01 99 $273,956.79 100 $401,091.28 96 $319,119.79 $413,192.47
(14) Transportation safety planning 100 $272,905.69 100 $508,930.60 100 $278,791.33 100 $320,730.81 $224,932.77
(15) Data collection and analysis 100 $327,867.32 100 $444,720.22 100 $420,979.56 100 $413,804.31 $507,085.50
(16) Work zone emergency comm. 100 $405,435.05 100 $103,276.52 100 $322,515.40 100 $231,477.99 $51,533.33
(17) Guardrails, barriers, etc. 100 $666,369.41 99 $1,401,261.02 100 $819,354.02 98 $927,128.74 $828,400.60
(18) Vehicle/wildlife crash measures 100 $154,303.94 100 $361,946.52 100 $145,896.63 100 $556,220.75 $2,805,356.80
(19) Ped/bike signs 100 $147,516.25 100 $137,096.86 100 $86,986.50 100 $111,000.91 $22,412.00
(21) High risk rural roads projects 100 $56,435.71 100 n/a n/a $837,257.25 100 $323,829.23 $232,850.50
(22) Road safety audits 100 $94,483.40 100 $127,296.67 100 $438,298.13 100 $271,421.62 $267,832.40
(23) Other 88 $901,484.33 98 $6,257,329.70 100 $1,283,747.02 92 $1,362,477.90 $1,192,624.47

Note: Not all states provided cost data for all projects in a given improvement category. Therefore, the columns labeled as "%" are a calculation of the total number of projects that reported cost divided by the total number of projects in each improvement category.

Table 4 and Figure 3 present the number of HSIP projects categorized by SHSP emphasis area between 2009 and 2012. For consistency and national reporting purposes, each State's SHSP emphasis areas were assigned to the AASHTO SHSP emphasis areas. A complete description of each emphasis area is included in Appendix D. Please note that States often times categorize a single project by several SHSP Emphasis Areas. Therefore, for the purpose of Table 4 and Figure 3, a single project may be counted more than once. For example, the State recently completed an intersection improvement project that enhanced safety for pedestrians. This project could be categorized as EA 9 Making Walking and Street Crossing Safer as well as EA 17 Improving the Design and Operation of Intersections and is therefore counted once in each category.

For the number of projects per SHSP Emphasis Area for all years (2009-2012), the top five SHSP Emphasis Areas guiding HSIP investments are:

Table 4: Number of HSIP Projects by SHSP Emphasis Area per Year

SHSP Emphasis Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 Total
EA 1 Young Drivers 0 1 0 2 3
EA 2 Driver Licensure 0 0 0 0 0
EA 3 Older Drivers 0 1 0 2 3
EA 4 Aggressive Driving 2 24 1 16 43
EA 5 Impaired Driving 0 0 2 6 8
EA 6 Keeping Drivers Alert 0 4 8 5 17
EA 7 Driver Safety Awareness 4 0 18 5 27
EA 8 Belt Usage 0 1 4 0 5
EA 9 Pedestrian Safety 27 85 43 59 214
EA 10 Bicyclist Safety 4 1 10 9 24
EA 11 Motorcyclist Safety 0 0 0 0 0
EA 12 Large Truck Safety 3 0 4 2 9
EA 13 Vehicle Safety Enhancements 0 0 0 0 0
EA 14 Vehicle-Train Crashes 24 4 8 30 66
EA 15 Keeping Vehicles on the Road 386 724 918 635 2,663
EA 16 Roadside Obstacles 170 123 778 465 1,536
EA 17 Intersection Safety 313 458 739 777 2,287
EA 18 Head-on/Cross Median Crashes 101 218 739 321 1,379
EA 19 Work Zone Safety 10 11 12 1 34
EA 20 Emergency Services 13 2 0 2 17
EA 21 Decision Support Systems 3 6 32 41 82
EA 22 Safety Management Systems 3 0 21 32 56

Figure 3: Number of HSIP projects per SHSP emphasis area

Figure 3: Number of HSIP projects per SHSP emphasis area

Conclusion

The HSIP is a strategic program that uses data and analysis to target safety resources. This aggregate HSIP National Summary Baseline Report shows that between 2009 and 2012, States directed HSIP funds to address the predominant infrastructure-related crash types – roadway departure, intersection and pedestrian crashes.

Safety performance is measured by a reduction in the rate and number of fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads. There are many complexities associated with directly attributing reductions in fatalities and serious injuries at a national level to any one program. Existing modeling tools cannot isolate the safety effect of specific infrastructure and behavioral programs. However, we know that the programmatic activities to drive down fatalities and serious injuries need to be as varied as the causes of the crashes themselves. That is why, at the U.S. Department of Transportation, we continue to aggressively pursue a holistic approach to safety that includes engineering, enforcement, education, and emergency medical services.

References

AASHTO, Strategic Highway Safety Plan, 2005.
http://safety.transportation.org/doc/Safety-StrategicHighwaySafetyPlan.pdf

FHWA, HSIP Apportionment Notices
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/notices/

FHWA, HSIP Reporting Guidance, May 15, 2009.
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu/guides/guide051509.cfm

FHWA, HSIP Online Reporting Tool
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/resources/onrpttool/

OIG, FHWA Provides Sufficient Guidance and Assistance to Implement the Highway Safety Improvement Program but Could Do More to Assess Program Results. Report Number: MH-2013-055. March 26, 2013.

Appendix A: Full Description of HSIP Improvement Categories

(1) An intersection safety improvement project
(2) Pavement and shoulder widening
(3) Installation of rumble strips or other warning devices
(4) Installation of skid resistant surface at an intersection or other location with a high frequency of crashes
(5) An improvement for pedestrian or bicyclist safety or for the safety of persons with disabilities
(6) Construction of any project for the elimination of hazards at a railway-highway crossing that is eligible for funding under 23 U.S.C 130, including the separation or protection of grades at railway-highway crossings.
(7) Construction of railway-highway crossing safety feature, including installation of highway-railway grade crossing protective devices
(8) The conduct of an effective traffic enforcement activity at a railway-highway crossing
(9) Construction of a traffic calming feature
(10) Elimination of a roadside obstacle or roadside hazard
(11) Improvement of highway signage and pavement markings
(12) Installation of a priority control system for emergency vehicles at signalized intersections
(13) Installation of a traffic control or other warning device at a location with high crash potential
(14) Transportation safety planning
(15) Improvement in the collection and analysis of data
(16) Planning integrated interoperable emergency communications equipment, operational activities or traffic enforcement activities (including law enforcement assistance) relating to work zone safety.
(17) Installation of guardrails, barriers (including barriers between construction work zones and traffic lanes for the safety of road user and workers), and crash attenuators.
(18) The addition of retrofitting of structures or other measures to eliminate or reduce crashes involving vehicles and wildlife
(19) Installation and maintenance of signs (including fluorescent yellow-green signs) at pedestrian-bicycle crossings and in school zones.
(21) Construction and operation improvements on high risk rural roads.
(22) Conducting road safety audits
(23) Other

Appendix B: Number of highway safety improvement projects per improvement category

Improvement Category Total Number Projects – 2009 Total Number Projects – 2010 Total Number Projects – 2011 Total Number Projects – 2012
(1) An intersection safety improvement project 601 689 761 736
(2) Pavement and shoulder widening 198 163 256 240
(3) Installation of rumble strips or other warning devices 88 382 384 113
(4) Installation of skid resistant surface at an intersection or other location with a high frequency of crashes 26 56 67 81
(5) An improvement for pedestrian or bicyclist safety or for the safety of persons with disabilities 23 73 70 113
(6) Construction of any project for the elimination of hazards at a railway-highway crossing that is eligible for funding under 23 U.S.C. 130, including the separation or protection of grades at railway-highway crossings. 10 17 2 36
(7) Construction of railway-highway crossing safety feature, including installation of highway-railway grade crossing protective devices 34 7 29 10
(8) The conduct of an effective traffic enforcement activity at a railway-highway crossing none none 1 none
(9) Construction of a traffic calming feature 3 10 15 4
(10) Elimination of a roadside obstacle or roadside hazard 37 128 89 71
(11) Improvement of highway signage and pavement markings 127 192 201 288
(12) Installation of a priority control system for emergency vehicles at signalized intersections 3 2 none 2
(13) Installation of a traffic control or other warning device at a location with high crash potential 50 85 123 194
(14) Transportation safety planning 13 32 25 46
(15) Improvement in the collection and analysis of data 20 38 36 40
(16) Planning integrated interoperable emergency communications equipment, operational activities or traffic enforcement activities (including law enforcement assistance) relating to work zone safety. 15 22 23 20
(17) Installation of guardrails, barriers (including barriers between construction work zones and traffic lanes for the safety of road user and workers), and crash attenuators. 191 284 249 247
(18) The addition or retrofitting of structures or other measures to eliminate or reduce crashes involving vehicles and wildlife 5 16 10 7
(19) Installation and maintenance of signs (including fluorescent yellow-green signs) at pedestrian-bicycle crossings and in school zones. 1 4 7 10
(21) Construction and operational improvements on high risk rural roads. [Do not use for the HRRRP portion of the report.] 2 7 none 4
(22) Conducting road safety audits. 5 5 3 8
(23) Other 153 91 22 62
Total 1605 2303 2373 2332

Appendix C: Cost of highway safety improvement projects per improvement category

Improvement Category Cost of Projects – 2009 Cost of Projects – 2010 Cost of Projects – 2011 Cost of Projects – 2012
(1) An intersection safety improvement project $505,848,973.24 $421,318,611.37 $572,459,357.81 $504,251,826.19
(2) Pavement and shoulder widening $467,921,838.26 $185,523,386.57 $292,206,740.31 $279,448,653.30
(3) Installation of rumble strips or other warning devices $52,020,961.04 $106,073,140.95 $114,819,414.77 $75,237,804.17
(4) Installation of skid resistant surface at an intersection or other location with a high frequency of crashes $20,082,754.00 $32,300,039.00 $48,706,147.50 $46,209,081.83
(5) An improvement for pedestrian or bicyclist safety or for the safety of persons with disabilities $21,276,651.00 $31,806,809.78 $28,093,691.94 $38,577,414.70
(6) Construction of any project for the elimination of hazards at a railway-highway crossing that is eligible for funding under 23 U.S.C. 130, including the separation or protection of grades at railway-highway crossings. $35,150,486.00 $10,161,100.00 $289,726.00 $11,451,422.04
(7) Construction of railway-highway crossing safety feature, including installation of highway-railway grade crossing protective devices $17,821,748.00 $13,296,360.00 $9,245,343.00 $9,180,842.00
(8) The conduct of an effective traffic enforcement activity at a railway-highway crossing none none $2,000,000.00 none
(9) Construction of a traffic calming feature $1,984,635.00 $10,217,262.00 $9,851,078.00 $369,466.00
(10) Elimination of a roadside obstacle or roadside hazard $11,437,090.81 $28,616,135.75 $40,843,100.00 $24,046,437.72
(11) Improvement of highway signage and pavement markings $51,089,170.88 $65,207,379.00 $65,025,627.02 $128,283,384.74
(12) Installation of a priority control system for emergency vehicles at signalized intersections $4,808,733.00 $74,803.00 none $228,600.00
(13) Installation of a traffic control or other warning device at a location with high crash potential $18,180,468.58 $12,893,245.00 $33,696,684.60 $75,004,068.75
(14) Transportation safety planning $2,924,126.00 $8,732,982.00 $12,723,265.00 $12,824,401.00
(15) Improvement in the collection and analysis of data $10,141,710.00 $12,458,958.00 $16,009,928.00 $16,839,182.20
(16) Planning integrated interoperable emergency communications equipment, operational activities or traffic enforcement activities (including law enforcement assistance) relating to work zone safety. $773,000.00 $8,919,571.00 $2,375,360.00 $6,450,308.00
(17) Installation of guardrails, barriers (including barriers between construction work zones and traffic lanes for the safety of road user and workers), and crash attenuators. $158,224,513.96 $186,583,436.16 $348,913,995.13 $199,103,027.60
(18) The addition or retrofitting of structures or other measures to eliminate or reduce crashes involving vehicles and wildlife $14,026,784.00 $2,468,863.00 $3,619,465.24 $1,021,276.43
(19) Installation and maintenance of signs (including fluorescent yellow-green signs) at pedestrian-bicycle crossings and in school zones. $22,412.00 $590,065.00 $959,678.00 $869,865.00
(21) Construction and operational improvements on high risk rural roads. [Do not use for the HRRRP portion of the report.] $465,701.00 $395,050.00 none $3,349,029.00
(22) Conducting road safety audits. $1,339,162.00 $472,417.00 $381,890.00 $3,506,385.00
(23) Other $161,004,303.34 $80,232,105.59 $121,213,594.00 $50,380,801.91
Total $1,556,545,222.11 $1,218,341,720.17 $1,723,434,086.32 $1,486,633,277.58

Appendix D: Full Description of SHSP Emphasis Areas

EA 1 Instituting Graduated Licensing for Young Drivers
EA 2 Ensuring Drivers are Fully Licensed and Competent
EA 3 Sustaining Proficiency in Older Drivers
EA 4 Aggressive Driving
EA 5 Reducing Impaired Driving
EA 6 Keeping Drivers Alert
EA 7 Increasing Driver Safety Awareness
EA 8 Increasing Safety Belt Usage and Improving Air Bag Effectiveness
EA 9 Making Walking and Street Crossing Safer
EA 10 Ensuring Safer Bicycle Travel
EA 11 Motorcycle Safety Awareness
EA 12 Making Truck Traffic Safer
EA 13 Increasing Safety Enhancements in Vehicles
EA 14 Reducing Vehicle-Train Collisions
EA 15 Keeping Vehicles on the Roadway
EA 16 Minimizing the Consequences of Leaving the Roadway
EA 17 Improving the Design and Operation of Intersections
EA 18 Reducing Head-on and Cross Median Crashes
EA 19 Design Safer Work Zones
EA 20 Enhancing Medical Capabilities to Increase Survivability
EA 21 Improving Information and Decision Support Systems
EA 22 Creating More Effective Processes and Safety Management Systems

Page last modified on January 30, 2014.
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