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FHWA Home / Safety / Older Users

Handbook for Designing Roadways for the Aging Population

APPENDIX B

Photograph and Image Credits

Figure #

Caption

Credit

Cover 1 (in-lane freeway route shield markings) Jim Lyle, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Cover 2 (crosswalk markings) Kay Fitzpatrick, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Cover 3 (work zone cones) Tom Saunders, Virginia Department of Transportation
Cover 4 (curve warning markings) Marcus Brewer/Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
Cover 5 (railroad crossing devices) Ben Sperry, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
1 Elements included for each Handbook treatment Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
2 Percentage of crashes involving drivers and pedestrians by age at intersections (Hauer, 1988). Ezra Hauer, TRB Special Report 218 (1988)
3 Example 90° angle of intersection. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
4 Example 75° angle of intersection. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
5 Skewed signalized intersection with prohibition of right turn on red Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
6 Recommended receiving lane width. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
7 Vertical Curb (top), Sloping Curb (bottom) David Harkey, Highway Safety Resource Center, University of North Carolina
8 Left-turn lanes with positive offset Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
9 Recommended signs and markings for intersections with channelized offset left-turn lanes Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
10 Pedestrian Crossing Island (or Refuge Area) Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
11 Raised median island with yellow marking on the vertical face and top surface. David Harkey, Highway Safety Resource Center, University of North Carolina
12 Comparison of curb radii Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
13 MUTCD R10-12 sign adjacent to left-turn signal face. Marcus Brewer, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
14 (MUTCD R10-31P) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
15 (MUTCD R10-11) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
16 Skewed signalized intersection with prohibition of right turn on red Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
17 (MUTCD R10-15) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
18 (MUTCD D3-1) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
19 Intersection Warning W2-1 Sign and W16-8P Supplemental Advance Street Name Plaque Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
20 (MUTCD D3-2) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
21 (MUTCD W4-4P) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
22 (MUTCD W3-1) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
23 Mast-arm mounted lane-use control signs Alan Pate, Battelle
24 Yellow retroreflective backplates Mark Doctor, Federal Highway Administration
25 Pedestrian crossing at channelized right-turn lane. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
26 (MUTCD R10-3 Series) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
27 Recommended placement of MUTCD R10-15 sign. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
28 Countdown pedestrian signal David Harkey, Highway Safety Resource Center, University of North Carolina
29 Key geometric design elements and traffic control devices for roundabouts Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
30 (MUTCD W2-6) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
31 Roundabout directional arrow sign Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
32 Placement of Roundabout Circulation Plaques Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
33 Right-Turn Channelization Design Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
34 Combination Lane Use/Destination Guide Sign (MUTCD D15-1). Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
35 Example of one signal head per lane Marcus Brewer, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
36 High-visibility (”ladder”) crosswalk Kay Fitzpatrick, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
37 Yield Ahead Triangle Symbols David Harkey, Highway Safety Resource Center, University of North Carolina
38 Diagram of Median U-Turn Intersection Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
39 Diagram of Restricted Crossing U-Turn Intersection Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
40 (MUTCD R10-32P) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
41 Typical arrangements of signal faces with flashing yellow arrow indications for permissive left-turn movements Flashing Yellow Arrow information page, City of Bryan website, Bryan, Texas (2014) www.bryantx.gov
42 Example Overhead Arrow-per-Lane Sign. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
43 (MUTCD D13-3) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
44 Recommended signs and markings for adjacent entrance/exit ramps at a crossroad intersection Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
45 Advance ground-mounted diagrammatic sign. David Harkey, Highway Safety Resource Center, University of North Carolina
46 Recommended raised pavement markers and post- mounted delineators at an exit gore Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
47 Placement of chevrons on the controlling curve of an exit ramp Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
48 Recommended markings for acceleration lanes from entrance ramps onto freeways. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
49 Recommended signing for restricted movements on an exit ramp Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
50 Route Shield Markings At Freeway Junctions Jim Lyle, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
51 White edge lines, centerline RPMs, and chevrons on a horizontal curve Adam Pike, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
52 (MUTCD W7-6 and W13-1P). Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
53 (MUTCD W3-4 and W16-13). Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
54 (MUTCD W14-3) Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
55 Lane Control Signal (adapted from Ullman et al. 1996) Ullman, G.L., Parma, K.D., Peoples, M.D., Trout, N.D., and Tallamraju, S.S. Visibility, Spacing, and Operation of Freeway Lane Control Signals. (1996)
56 Dotted Lane Line Markings at Freeway Lane Drop Marcus Brewer, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
57 Contrast Markings on Light Colored Pavement Marcus Brewer, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
58 Curve Warning Markings Marcus Brewer/Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
59 Example of Road Diet Virginia Department of Transportation
60 High Friction Surface Treatment on a Horizontal Curve Ken Kochevar, Federal Highway Administration
61 Flashing arrow panel at lane closure taper. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
62 Changeable message sign upstream of lane closure taper Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
63 Redundant static signs upstream of lane closure taper Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
64 Phase 1 (Top) and Phase 2 (Bottom) Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
65 Use of approved abbreviation in one-phase message Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
66 Traffic cone for nighttime work zone operations. Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
67 Temporary work zone sign with increased letter height. Caltrans, Office of Signs, Markings and California MUTCD. Challenge Area: CA-14 — Improve Work Zone Safety. (2012)
68 Recommended placement of post-mounted delineators Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
69 Turning Path Taken by Left-Turning Vehicles (from Staplin et al., 1997). Staplin, L., Harkey, D., Lococo, K., and Tarawneh, M. Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume I: Final Report. (1997)
70 Intersection Geometries Examined in a Field Study of Right-Turn Channelization (Staplin et al., 1997). Staplin, L., Harkey, D., Lococo, K., and Tarawneh, M. Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume I: Final Report. (1997)
71 Sight Distance for Left and Right Turns for Passenger Car Drivers at Yield-Control Intersections (Harwood et al., 1993). Harwood, D.W., Mason, J.W., Jr., Pietrucha, M.T., Brydia, R.E., Hostetter, R.S., and Gittings, G.L. Intersection Sight Distance. (1993)
72 Spatial relationships that determine available sight distance McCoy, P.T., Navarro, U.R., and Witt, W.E. “Guidelines for Offsetting Opposing Left-Turn Lanes on Four-Lane Divided
Roadways.” Transportation Research Record 1356. (1992)
73 Comparison of Required Intersection Sight Distance Values from the Modified AASHTO Model (with J
= 2.5 S) and the Gap Acceptance Model (with Gap Values of 5.5 S, 7.0, 7.5 S, and 8.0 S).
Staplin, L., Harkey, D., Lococo, K., and Tarawneh, M. Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume I: Final Report. (1997)
74 Alignment of Left-Turn Lanes for Negative and Positive Offset David Harkey, Highway Safety Resource Center, University of North Carolina
75 Alternative Left-Turn Treatments for Rural and Suburban Divided Highways Bonneson, J.A., McCoy, P.T., and Truby, J.E. “Safety Improvements at Intersections on Rural Expressways: A Survey of
State Departments of Transportation.”
Transportation Research Record 1385.  (1993)
76 Sight Distance Restrictions for a Positioned and Unpositioned Left-Turning Driver at an Aligned Intersection with an Opposing Left-Turning Vehicle. Staplin, L., Harkey, D., Lococo, K., and Tarawneh, M. Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume I: Final Report. (1997)
77 Left-Turn Lane Offset Design Values Necessary to Achieve Unrestricted Sight Distances Calculated with Either the Modified AASHTO Model (J = 2.5 s) or the Gap Acceptance Model (G = 8.0 s). Staplin, L., Harkey, D., Lococo, K., and Tarawneh, M. Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume I: Final Report. (1997)
78 Alternative Curb Radii Evaluated in Laboratory Preference Study of Intersection Geometries Staplin, L., Harkey, D., Lococo, K., and Tarawneh, M. Intersection Geometric Design and Operational Guidelines for Older Drivers and Pedestrians, Volume I: Final Report. (1997)
79 Novel Sign Tested as a Countermeasure to Reduce RTOR Violations and Pedestrian Conflicts Zegeer, C.V. and Cynecki, M.J. “Evaluation of Countermeasures Related to RTOR Accidents that Involve Pedestrians.” Transportation Research Record 1059. (1986)
80 Recommended Wording For Educational Placards For One-Stage And Two-Stage Crossings Knoblauch, R., Nitzburg, M., Dewar, R., Templer, A. and Pietrucha, M. Older
Pedestrian Characteristics for Use in Highway Design. (1995)
81 One Way and Chevron Sign Combination Used in Central Island of Roundabout Jacquemart, G. Synthesis of Highway Practice 264: Synthesis of Roundabout Practice in the United States. (1998)
82 Roundabout Advance Warning Sign Recommended by Lord et al Lord, D., Van Schalwyk, L., Chrysler, S., and Staplin, L. “A Strategy to Reduce Older Driver Injuries at Intersections Using More Accommodating Roundabout Design Practices.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(3), pp 427-432. (2007)
83 Lane Control Sign Recommended by Lord et al Lord, D., Van Schalwyk, L., Chrysler, S., and Staplin, L. “A Strategy to Reduce Older Driver Injuries at Intersections Using More Accommodating Roundabout Design Practices.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(3), pp 427-432. (2007)
84 Roundabout Sign Recommended by Lord et al Lord, D., Van Schalwyk, L., Chrysler, S., and Staplin, L. “A Strategy to Reduce Older Driver Injuries at Intersections Using More Accommodating Roundabout Design Practices.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(3), pp 427-432. (2007)
85 Yield Sign Treatment Recommended by Lord et al Lord, D., Van Schalwyk, L., Chrysler, S., and Staplin, L. “A Strategy to Reduce Older Driver Injuries at Intersections Using More Accommodating Roundabout Design Practices.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(3), pp 427-432. (2007)
86 Exit Treatment Recommended by Lord et al Lord, D., Van Schalwyk, L., Chrysler, S., and Staplin, L. “A Strategy to Reduce Older Driver Injuries at Intersections Using More Accommodating Roundabout Design Practices.” Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(3), pp 427-432. (2007)
87 Example of continental crosswalk markings K. Fitzpatrick, S.T. Chrysler, V. Iragavarapu, E. Park. (2010) Crosswalk Marking Field Visibility Study. Research Report. FHWA-HRT-10-068. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.
88 Example of bar pairs crosswalk markings K. Fitzpatrick, S.T. Chrysler, V. Iragavarapu, E. Park. (2010) Crosswalk Marking Field Visibility Study. Research Report. FHWA-HRT-10-068. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC.
89 Diagram of Median U-Turn Intersection Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
90 Diagram of Restricted Crossing U-Turn Intersection Debbie Murillo, Texas A&M Transportation Institute
91 Supplemental Plaque Used with Extended Crossing Time Feature for APS Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways, 2009 Edition.
92 Example of MUTCD diagrammatic sign (a) and modified diagrammatic sign (b) used in comprehension evaluation Brackett, Q., Huchingson, R.D., Trout, N.D., and Womack, K.  “Study of Urban Guide Sign Deficiencies.” Transportation Research Record 1368. (1992)
93 Ground-Mounted Diagrammatic Guide Sign for Urban Multilane Arterial, Used by Zwahlen et al Zwahlen, Helmut T., Russ, Andrew, Roth, James M., and Schnell, Thomas. (2003) “Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Ground Mounted Diagrammatic Advance Guide Signs For Freeway Entrance Ramps”, Paper No. 03-3315, presented at the 82nd Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.
94 Pixel layout of LCD Heads employed in research conducted by Ullman et al. Ullman, G.L., Parma, K.D., Peoples, M.D., Trout, N.D., and Tallamraju, S.S. Visibility, Spacing, and Operation of Freeway Lane Control Signals. (1996)
95 Current (left) and proposed modified (right) temporary work zone sign in California. Caltrans, Office of Signs, Markings and California MUTCD. Challenge Area: CA-14 — Improve Work Zone Safety. (2012)
96 Experimental Enhanced Crossbuck Sign, Referred to as the “Buckeye Crossbuck” or “Conrail Shield”. Russell, E.R. and Kent, W. Highway-Rail Crossing Safety Demonstrations. (1993).
97 Standard MUTCD W10-3 Sign and Alternative Sign Designs Evaluated by Picha, Hawkins, and Womack Picha, D.L., Hawkins, H.G., and Womack, K.N. Motorist Understanding of Alternative Designs for Traffic Signs. (1995)
Page last modified on May 24, 2016
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