U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
In 2018, 74 percent of pedestrian fatalities in the U.S. occurred outside of intersections, including midblock locations.1 Because people consider walking distance to destinations, traffic speed, and intersection design when crossing the road, additional midblock crosswalks may be considered for improving overall walkability and safety between intersections.
Roadway markings establish legal crosswalks and assign the right-of-way for pedestrian crossings between intersections.2 However, marked crosswalks alone are insufficient for roads with higher speeds (over 40 mph) or multilane roads carrying over 12,000 vehicles per day.3
The FHWA Guide for Improving Pedestrian Safety at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations provides options for additional countermeasures and safety treatments based on roadway conditions and safety issues. This guidance helps agencies make the linkage between the decision to mark a crosswalk and the full scope of additional countermeasures that should be considered at a location.4
For more information about this guide and countermeasures to improve pedestrian crossing safety, visit the FHWA Safe Transportation for Every Pedestrian (STEP) program website: https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/step
1Pedestrians, 2018 Data. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) https://crashstats.nhtsa.dot.gov/Api/Public/ViewPublication/812850
2U. S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices, Sec. 3B.18 Crosswalk Markings, 2009. https://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/htm/2009r1r2/part3/part3b.htm#figure3B18
3Zegeer, C. et al, Safety Effects of Marked Versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations, 2005, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/ publications/research/safety/04100/04100.pdf
4Blackburn, L., Zegeer, C., and K. Brookshire. Guide for Improving Pedestrian Safety at Uncontrolled Crossing Locations. 2018. Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-SA-17-072, Washington, DC.