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Roadway Visibility Research Needs Assessment

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As stated previously, this report is a snapshot of some best management practices—currently under real-world deployment—within agencies around the nation; it is not intended to be a comprehensive guide to managing roadside trees and poles. There have been a number of other works written about tree and pole management strategies and additional research is being proposed within the industry. In addition to the AASHTO Roadside Design Guide, the two works described and cited below are recommended reading for additional information.

  1. Hills, B.L. Vision, Visibility, and Perception in Driving. Perception, Vol. 9, 1980, pp. 183–216.
  2. AASHTO. Highway Safety Manual. AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2010.
  3. Allen, M.J., R.D. Hazlett, H.L. Tacker, and B.V. Graham. Actual Pedestrian Visibility and the Pedestrian’s Estimate of His Own Visibility. American Journal of Optometry & Archives, Vol. 47, 1970.
  4. Lutkevich, P., D. Mclean, and J. Cheung. FHWA Lighting Handbook. FHWA-SA-11-22. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC, 2012.
  5. FHWA. Roadway Departure Safety. Available at http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/.
  6. FHWA. FHWA Roadway Departure (RwD) Strategic Plan. Revised 2013. Available at  http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/docs/rwd_strategic_plan_version2013.pdf.
  7. AASHTO. A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets (Green Book). AASHTO, Washington, DC, 2004.
  8. IESNA. Roadway Lighting. ANSI/IES RP-8-14. IESNA, New York, NY, 2014.
  9. Carlson, P.J., E.S. Park, C. Andersen, B. Kuhn, A. Pike, J. Miles, R. Brydia, W. Ealding, and R.J. Porter. Pavement Marking Demonstration Project: State of Alaska and State of Tennessee—Report to Congress. FHWA-HRT-09-039. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2010.
  10. Park, E.S., P.J. Carlson, R.J. Porter, and C.K. Anderson. Safety Effects of Wider Edge Lines on Rural, Two-Lane Highways. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 48, 2012, pp. 317–325.
  11. Miles, J.D., P.J. Carlson, R. Eurek, J. Re, and E.S. Park. Evaluation of Potential Benefits of Wider and Brighter Edge Line Pavement Markings. FHWA/TX-10/0-5862-1. Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, 2010.
  12. Lyon, C., B. Persaud, and K. Eccles. Safety Evaluation of Wet-Reflective Pavement Markings. FHWA-HRT-15-065. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2015.
  13. Donnell, E.T., and S. Sathyanarayanan. Exploring the Statistical Association between Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity and Traffic Crash Frequency on Two- and Multilane Highways in North Carolina. Pennsylvania State University, University Park, August 2007.
  14. Smadi, O., N.R. Hawkins, R.R. Souleyrette, and D. Ormand. Analysis of Safety-Effectiveness of Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity. 2008 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 2008.
  15. Carlson, P.J., E.S. Park, and D.H. Kang. Investigation of Longitudinal Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity and Safety. Transportation Research Record, No. 2337, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2013.
  16. Avelar, R.E., and P.J. Carlson. Characterizing the Combined Association of Edge Line and Center Line Retroreflectivity to Nighttime Crashes on Michigan Two-Lane Rural Highways.  Transportation Research Record, No. 2404, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2014.
  17. Carlson, P.J., R.E. Avelar, E.S. Park, and D.H. Kang. Nighttime Safety and Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity on Two-Lane Highways: Revisited with North Carolina Data. Paper 15-5753, 2015 TRB Annual Meeting, 2015.
  18. Carlson, P.J., B. Brimley, G. Hawkins, S. Himes, H. McGee., and F. Gross. Traffic Control Device Guidelines for Curves. Final Report, NCHRP Project 03-106, April 2015. Available at http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/docs/NCHRP03-106_FR.pdf.
  19. Fitzpatrick, K., S. Chrysler, S. Sunkari, J. Cooper, B.J. Park, and L. Higgins. Modern Traffic Control Devices to Improve Safety at Rural Intersections. FHWA/TX-12/0-6462-1. Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, 2011.
  20. Sunkari, S.R. Improvements to Rural Intersections to Improve Motorist Compliance. FHWA/TX-14/9-1529-1. Texas Department of Transportation, Austin, TX, 2014.
  21. Persaud, B., C. Lyon, K. Eccles, N. Lefler, and R. Amjadi. Safety Evaluation of Increasing Retroreflectivity on STOP Signs. FHWA-HRT-08-041. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2007. 
  22. Carlson, P.J., B. Brimley, J. Miles, S. Chrysler, R Gibbons, and T. Terry. NCHRP Report 828: Guidelines for Nighttime Visibility of Overhead Signs. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2016.
  23. Edwards, C. Lighting Levels for Isolated Intersections: Leading to Safety Improvements. MnDOT 2015-05. Minnesota Department of Transportation, St. Paul, MN, 2015.
  24. Obeidat, M.S., and M.J. Rys. Intersection Lighting Impacts on Nighttime Crashes Reduction and Safety Improvement. 2016 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 2016.
  25. Bhagavathula, R. Effects of Intersection Lighting Design on Driver Visual Performance, Perceived Visibility, and Glare. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA, 2015.
  26. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. FARS Database Query Tool. Available at http://www-fars.nhtsa.dot.gov//QueryTool/QuerySection/SelectYear.aspx.
  27. Findley, D., S. Searcy, K. Salamati, B. Schroeder, B. Williams, R. Bhagavathula, and L. Rodegerdts. Accelerating Roundabout Implementation in the United States, Volume 7: Human Factor Assessment of Traffic Control Device Effectiveness. FHWA-SA-15-075. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2015.
  28. Fitzpatrick, K., R. Avelar, I. Potts, M. Brewer, J. Robertson, C. Fees, J. Hutton, L. Lucas, and K. Bauer. Investigating Improvements to Pedestrian Crossings with an Emphasis on the Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacon. FHWA-HRT-15-043. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2015.
  29. Hunter, W.W., R. Srinivasan, and C.A. Martell. Evaluation of Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacon at Pinellas Trail Crossing in Saint Petersburg, Florida. Transportation Research Record, No. 2314, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2012, pp. 7–13.
  30. Fitzpatrick, K., M.A. Brewer, and R. Avelar. Driver Yielding at Traffic Control Signals, Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons, and Rectangular Rapid-Flashing Beacons in Texas. Transportation Research Record, No. 2463, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2014, pp. 46–54.
  31. Katz, B. Peripheral Transverse Pavement Markings for Speed Control. Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, VA, 2007.
  32. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 49, Section 571.108. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard 108. Available at https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2004-title49-vol5/xml/CFR-2004-title49-vol5-sec571-108.xml.
  33. Kang, B., B. Yong, and K. Park. Performance Evaluations of LED Headlamps. International Journal of Automotive Technology, Vol. 11, No. 5, 2010, pp. 737–742.
  34. Insurance Institute for Highway Safety Highway Loss Data Institute. In the Dark: New Ratings Show Most Headlights Need Improvement. Status Report, Vol. 51, No. 3, March 30, 2016. Available at http://www.iihs.org/iihs/sr/statusreport/article/51/3/1.
  35. Carlson, P. Can Traffic Signs Be Too Bright on Low-Volume Roads? Transportation Research Record, No. 2472, Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2015.
  36. Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT). Stopping Sight Distance and Decision Sight Distance. Discussion Paper No. 8A. ODOT, Salem, OR, 1997.
  37. FHWA. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. FHWA, Washington, DC, 2009.
  38. Himes, S., K. Eccles, K. Peach, C.M. Monsere, and T. Gates. Estimating the Safety Effects of Intersection Sight Distance at Unsignalized Intersections. 2016 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 2016.
  39. Urbanik, T. NCHRP Report 813: Signal Timing Manual, Second Edition. Transportation Research Board, Washington, DC, 2015.
  40. Sullivan, J.M., and M.J. Flannagan. The Role of Ambient Light Levels in Fatal Crashes: Inferences from Daylight Saving Time Transitions. Accident Analysis and Prevention, Vol. 34, 2002, pp. 487–498.
  41. Peters, D., L. Kim, R. Zaman, G. Haas, J. Cheng, and S. Ahmed. Pedestrian Crossing Behavior at Signalized Intersections in New York City. 2015 TRB Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, 2015.
  42. American Medical Association. Human and Environmental Effects of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Community Lighting. CSAPH Report 2-A-16. AMA, Chicago, IL, 2016.
  43. North West Energy Alliance. Seattle LED Adaptive Lighting Study. North West Energy Alliance, Boulder, CO, 2014.
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