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FHWA Home / Safety / Roadway Departure / Sign Visibility

Annotated Bibliography

  1. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Millennium Edition – Revision No. 1, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., December 2001.
  2. Mace, D.J., R.B. King, and G.W. Dauber. Sign Luminance Requirements for Various Background Complexities, FHWA/RD-85/056, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1985.
  3. Austin, R.L. and H.L. Woltman. Evaluation of Headlamp Systems for Nighttime Safety: Their Relationship to Retroreflective Traffic Signs, In Transportation Research Board 1149, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1987
  4. Mace, D.J., R.S., Hostetter, L.E. Pollack, and W.D. Sweig. Minimal Luminance Requirements for Official Highway Signs, FHWA/RD-86/151, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1986.
  5. Stein, A.C., Z. Parseghian, R.W. Allen, and C.E. Wolf. Overhead Guide Sign Visibility Factors - Volumes I, FHWA/RD-88/196, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1989.
  6. Mace, D.J., P.M. Garvey, and R.F. Heckard. Relative Visibility of Increased Legend Size vs. Brighter Materials for Traffic Signs, FHWA-RD-94-035, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1994.
  7. Paniati, J.R., and Mace, D.J. Minimum Retroreflectivity Requirements for Traffic Signs, FHWA/RD-93/077, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1993.
  8. United States Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1992, Public Law 102-388, 106 Statute 1520, Section 406.
  9. McGee, H. W. and J.A. Paniati. An Implementation Guide for Minimum Retroreflectivity Requirements for Traffic Signs. FHWA/RD-97/052, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1998.
  10. McGee, H.W. and S. Taori. Impacts on State and Local Agencies for Maintaining Traffic Signs within Minimum Retroreflectivity Guidelines. Report No. FHWA-RD-97-053, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1998.
  11. American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control, ASTM D4956-99, West Conshohocken, PA, 1999.
  12. Gordon, D.A., Night Visibility o Overhead Guide Signs: A Review of the Literature. FHWA/RD-84/087, Federal Highway Department, Washington, D.C., 1984.
  13. Stein, A.C., Z. Parseghian, R.W. Allen, and C.E. Wolf. Overhead Guide Sign Visibility Factors - Volumes II, FHWA/RD-88/197, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1989.
  14. ITE Technical Council Committee 4A-26, Street Name Sign Practices, ITE Journal, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, D.C., May 1992.
  15. Advance Notice of Proposed Amendments to the MUTCD: Minimum In-Service Retroreflective Performance of Traffic Control Devices. Federal Register, Volume 50, Number 81, Pages 16515-16517, April 26, 1985.
  16. United States Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act of 1992, Public Law 102-388, 106 Statute 1520, Section 406.
  17. Carlson, P.J. and H.G. Hawkins. Minimum Retroreflectivity Values for Overhead Guide Signs and Street Name Signs. Unpublished DRAFT Final Report No. FHWA-RD-01-###, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 2001.
  18. Carlson, P.J. and G.H. Hawkins, Jr.. Minimum Retroreflectivity Values for Overhead and Street Name Signs. Accepted for Publication in Transportation Research Record, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., March 2002.
  19. Farber, E. and C. Matle. PCDETECT: A Revised Version of the DETECT Seeing Distance Model. Transportation Research Record1213. Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1989.
  20. Blackwell, H.R. Contrast Thresholds of the Human Eye. Journal of the Optical Society of America, Volume 36, Number 11, November 1946.
  21. American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control, ASTM D4956-01a, West Conshohocken, PA, 2001.
  22. Mercier, C.R., C. Goodspeed, C.J. Simmons, and J.F. Paniati. Evaluation of Proposed Minimum Retroreflectivity Requirements for Traffic Signs. In Transportation Research Record 1495, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1995.
  23. Goodspeed, C.H. and C.R. Mercier. Nighttime Sign Visibility Performance. Unpublished Draft Final Report, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., November 1993.
  24. A..F. Bildstein, Jr. The Effect of Environmental Illumination on Traffic Sign Conspicuity and Retroreflectivity. Master of Science Thesis, College of Engineering and Mineral Resources, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 2001.
  25. Black, K.L., H.W. McGee, S.F. Hussain, and J.J. Rennilson. Service Life of Retroreflective Signs, Report No. FHWA-RD-90-101, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1991.
  26. K.L. Black, H.W. McGee, and S.F. Hussain. Implementation Strategies for Sign Retroreflectivity Standards. NCHRP Report 346, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 1992.
  27. Hawkins, H.G. and P.J. Carlson. Results of Visual Evaluations of Sign Retroreflectivity Compared with Minimum Retroreflectivity Recommendations. In Transportation Research Record 1754, TRB, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 2001, pp. 11-20.
  28. Russell, G., M. Rys, A. Rys, and M. Keck. Characteristics and Needs for Overhead Guide Sign Illumination from Vehicular Headlamps. FHWA-RD-98-135, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1998.
  29. Chrysler, S.T., P.J. Carlson, H.G. Hawkins, Jr. Headlamp Illumination Provided to Sign Positions by U.S. Vehicles. 16 th Biennial Symposium on Visibility and Simulation (CD-ROM), Transportation Research Board, Iowa City, Iowa, June 2002.
  30. Schoettle, B., M. Sivak, and M.J. Flannagan. High-beam and low-beam headlighting patterns in the U.S. and Europe at the turn of the millennium. UMTRI-2001-19, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2001.
  31. Sivak, M., M.J. Flannagan, and Miyokawa A First Look at Visually Aimable and Harmonized Low-Beam Headlamps. UMTRI-2000-1, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2000.
  32. Sivak, M., M.J. Flannagan, S. Kojima, and E.C. Traube. A Market-Weighted Description of Low-Beam Headlighting Patterns on the U.S. UMTRI-97-37, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1997.
  33. K. Uding. Exact Road Geometry Output Program For Retroreflective Road Sign Performance. In Transportation Research Record 1421, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., 1993, pp. 62-28.
  34. Carlson, P.J. and H.G. Hawkins. Updated Minimum Retroreflectivity Levels for Traffic Signs. Draft Final Report FHWA-RD-03-###, Contract # DTFH61-01-C-00182, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., October, 2002.
  35. National Highway Safety Administration, Lamps, Reflective Devices, and Associated Equipment. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Standard 108 (49CFR, Fifth Volume), Revised March 1999.
  36. Russell, G., et al. - Characteristics and Needs for Overhead Guide Sign Illumination from Vehicular Headlamps, FHWA-RD-98-135, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., 1998.
  37. American Society for Testing and Materials, Standard Practice for Describing Retroreflection, ASTM E808-99, West Conshohocken, PA, 1999.
  38. Hawkins, H.G., P.J. Carlson, J.B. McCaleb, C.R. McIlroy. Impact of Minimum Retroreflectivity Values on Sign Replacement Strategies. FHWA/TX-97/1275-1F, Texas Transportation Institute, College Station, TX, 1996.
  39. Carlson, P.J., Hawkins, Jr., H.E., Schertz, G.H., Opiela, K.S., & Mace, D.J.; “Developing Updated Minimum In-Service Retroreflectivity Values for Traffic Signs,” paper presented at TRB, January 2003.
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