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FHWA Home / Safety / HSIP / HRRR / Manual for Selecting Safety Improvements on High Risk Rural Roads

Manual for Selecting Safety Improvements on High Risk Rural Roads

Cover of the Manual for Selecting Safety Improvements on High Risk Rural Roads

FHWA Safety Program

FHWA-HOP-14-075

Office of Safety logo: Safe Roads for a Safer Future - Investment in roadway safety saves lives.

For more information, visit http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/hrrr/

Contact: James Dahlem, james.dahlem@dot.gov, 202-366-9265.

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Table of Contents

Notices
Technical Report Documentation Page
SI Modern Metric Conversion Factors
List of Acronyms

Executive Summary
1. Introduction
  1.1. Purpose
  1.2. How to Use This Manual
2. High Risk Rural Roads Overview
  2.1. High Risk Rural Road Safety
  2.2. Challenges of Applying Treatments to HRRR
3. Identifying Safety Treatments
  3.1. Tools for Identifying HRRR Safety Issues
    Highway Safety Manual
    Safety Analyst
    Crash Modification Factor (CMF) Clearinghouse
    Road Safety Audits
    Training
  3.2. Systemic Implementation and Spot Location Treatments
4. Selecting Safety Treatments
  4.1. Horizontal Curves
    Install Curve Warning Signs
    Install/Upgrade Curve Warning Signs with Fluorescent Yellow Sheeting
    Double Use of Advanced Warning Signs for Curves or Intersections
    Use of Optical Speed Bars
    Install Chevron Signs
    Install Arrow Signs at Horizontal Curve Locations
    Install Post-Mounted Delineators at Horizontal Curves
    Install Targeted Longitudinal Rumble Strips on the Outside of Horizontal Curves
    Install Icy Curve Warning System
    Improve Superelevation at Horizontal Curve Locations
    Remove Compound Horizontal Curves
    Modify Horizontal/Vertical Geometry
  4.2. Intersections (Signalized)
    Improve Traffic Signal Visibility (Larger Diameter Lens or Install Back Plate)
    Provide Intersection Lighting
    Install Pedestrian Signal Heads to Existing Signalized Intersections
    Provide Flashing Beacons at Intersection Approaches
    Use Raised Median to Restrict Turning Movements
    Install Priority Control Systems for Emergency Vehicles
    Provide Advanced Dilemma Zone Detection for Rural High Speed Signalized Approaches
    Implement J-Turns Along a Signalized Corridor
    Install Acceleration or Deceleration Lanes
    Install Right Turn Lane
    Install Left Turn Lane
    Install Offset (or Channelized) Left Turn Lane
    Convert a Traditional Signalized Intersection into a Roundabout
    Reconstruct At-Grade Intersection to Create an Interchange
  4.3. Intersections (Unsignalized)
    Relocate an Existing Stop Bar on Minor Approach
    Install Stop Ahead Pavement Markings
    Install Advanced Intersection Warning Signs
    Provide a Stop Bar on Minor-Road Approaches
    Improve Sight Distance within Sight Triangle
    Provide Upcoming Road Names on Advanced Warning Signs
    Install Retroreflective Strips on Sign Posts
    Upgrade to Larger Stop Signs
    Double Use of Stop Signs
    Improve Sight Distance and Conspicuity at Railroad Grade Crossings
    Install a Splitter Island
    Channelization of Major and Minor Roads (Physical or Painted)
    Provide Intersection Lighting
    Install Dynamic Advanced Intersection Warning System
    Upgrade Existing Railroad Crossing Hardware and Warning Systems
    Implement Lane Narrowing through Rumble Strips and Painted Median at Rural Stop-Controlled Approaches
    Provide Flashing Beacons at Intersection Approaches
    Convert Minor Road Stop Control to All-Way Stop Control
    Convert a Traditional Stop-Controlled Intersection into a J-Turn Intersection
    Use Raised Median to Restrict Turning Movements
    Install Acceleration or Deceleration Lanes
    Install Railroad Crossing Hardware and Warning Systems Where They Currently Do Not Exist
    Convert a 4-Leg Intersection into Two 3-Leg Intersections (Offset T-Intersections)
    Install Bypass Lane
    Modify Horizontal and/or Vertical Geometry
    Improve Horizontal Intersection Alignment or Skew
    Install Traffic Signals
    Install Right Turn Lane
    Install Left Turn Lane
    Install Offset (or Channelized) Left Turn Lane
    Install a Roundabout (From Stop-Controlled)
    Remove or Separate an Existing Railroad Grade Crossing
  4.4. Non-Motorized User
    Provide Crosswalks at Targeted Locations
    Install Pedestrian Signal Heads to Existing Signalized Intersections
    Construct Wildlife Fencing
    Install Rectangular Rapid Flash Beacons
    Build Sidewalks
    Construct Adjacent Shared-Use Paths
    Construct Shared-Use Paved Shoulders for Horse & Buggy Road Users or Bicyclists
    Construct Exclusive Bicycle Lanes
    Install Curb Extensions
    Install or Modify Culverts to Accommodate Wildlife Crossing
    Install Pedestrian Hybrid Beacons or High Intensity Activated Crosswalk (HAWK)
    Construct Bicycle Trail Grade Separation Structures
  4.5. Pavement and Shoulder Resurfacing
    Install a Safety Edge
    Install Center Line Rumble Strips
    Install Edge Line or Shoulder Rumble Strips
    Install Transverse Rumble Strips
    Regrade or Recondition Gravel Lanes
    Install Targeted Longitudinal Rumble Strips at Key Locations (Such as on the Outside of Horizontal Curves Only)
    Install or Maintain a Graded Shoulder
    Provide Turnout Areas
    Improve Pavement Friction/Increase Skid Resistance
    Add Paved Shoulder
    Widen Existing Travel Lanes by Two Feet or Less per Lane
    Install Passing or Climbing Lanes
    Increase Shoulder Width
    Improve Superelevation at Horizontal Curve Locations
  4.6. Pavement Marking
    Provide a Stop Bar on Minor Road Approaches
    Install Stop Ahead Pavement Markings
    Relocate an Existing Stop Bar on Minor Approach
    Use of Optical Speed Bars
    Install Raised Pavement Markers
    Install Edge Line Markings
    Install Center Line Markings
    Install Wider Pavement Markings (With or Without Rumble Strips)
    Implement Lane Narrowing Through Rumble Strips and Painted Median at Rural Stop-Controlled Approaches
    Install Center Line and Edge Line Markings
    Convert a Four-Lane Two-Way Road into a Three-Lane Road With One Lane in Each Direction of Travel Plus a Continuous Two-Way Left Turn Lane (Road Diet)
    Convert a Four-Lane Two-Way Road into a Five-Lane Road with Two Lanes in Each Direction of Travel Plus a Continuous Two-Way Left Turn Lane OR Convert a Two-Lane Two-Way Road into a Three-Lane Road Plus a Continuous Two-Way Left Turn Lane
  4.7. Roadside
    Install a Safety Edge
    Improve Sight Distance by Controlling Roadside Vegetation
    Convert Culvert Headwalls to Traversable End Treatments
    Remove Guardrail
    Install or Maintain a Graded Shoulder
    Relocate Select Hazardous Utility Poles
    Install Median Guardrail
    Modify End Treatments of Existing Guardrail
    Install Impact Attenuation Devices at Select Roadside Hazard Locations (Such as Exposed Bridge Columns)
    Remove or Shield Obstacles in Clear Zone
    Increase Shoulder Width
    Widen Existing Median or Construct Median
    Install Median Cable Barrier
    Flatten Road Sideslope
    Create or Increase Clear Zone
    Add Paved Shoulder
    Install Concrete Median Barriers
  4.8. Signing
    Install/Upgrade Curve Warning Signs with Fluorescent Yellow Sheeting
    Install Curve Warning Signs
    Install Retroreflective Strips on Sign Posts
    Double Use of Advanced Warning Signs for Curves or Intersections
    Provide Upcoming Road Names on Advanced Warning Signs
    Install Advanced Intersection Warning Signs
    Upgrade to Larger Stop Signs
    Double Use of Stop Signs
    Use of Supplemental Warning Signs
    Install Chevron Signs
  4.9. Vertical Curves
    Install Advanced Intersection Warning Signs
    Install Dynamic Advanced Intersection Warning System
    Modify Horizontal/Vertical Geometry
    Relocate Driveways, Entrances, and Intersections
  4.10. Other Treatments
    Mitigate Ground Water to Prevent Ponding and/or Icing
    Widen Functionally Obsolete Bridges
5. Safety Management, the Funding Process, and Funding Sources
  5.1. Safety Management
    5.1.1. Safety Project Prioritization and Development
    5.1.2. Initial and Ongoing Treatment Costs
  5.2. The Funding Process
  5.3. Legislation and Funding Sources
    5.3.1. Legislation and Federal Funding Sources
    5.3.2. Other Funding Sources
  5.4. Evaluation
6. Navigating the Safety Treatments
  6.1. Identify Study Sites
  6.2. Perform Safety Diagnosis
  6.3. Initiate Treatment Analysis
  6.4. Perform Economic Analysis
  6.5. Summarize Recommendations

List of Figures

Figure 1. Flowchart A – HRRR Safety Enhancement Analysis
Figure 2. Flowchart B – Safety
Figure 3. Flowchart C – Treatment Analysis
Figure 4. Flowchart D – Economic Analysis

List of Tables

Table 1. Example Treatment Matrix
Table 2. 2010 Rural vs. Urban Collector and Local Road VMT and Fatality Rate Comparison


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Page last modified on July 31, 2014.
Safe Roads for a Safer Future - Investment in roadway safety saves lives
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000