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FHWA Home / Safety / HSIP / HSIP 2014 National Summary Report

HSIP 2014 National Summary Report

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Disclaimer/Quality Assurance

Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document. This report does not constitute a standard, specification or regulation. The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names may appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary
Background
HSIP Funding Approach
HSIP Project Overview
Project Cost
Functional Class and Ownership
Improvement Categories and Subcategories
SHSP Emphasis Areas
2013-2014 Comparison
Comparison to Previous Years
Summary
References
Appendix A: Full Description of HSIP Improvement Categories and Sub Categories for 2013 HSIP Reporting Guidance
Appendix B: Detailed Tables of Project Costs Summaries

List of Tables

Table 1: Total number of projects and project cost breakdown, 2013-2014
Table 2: Number of projects and average total project cost for various project types, 2013-2014
Table 3: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Geometry
Table 4: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Traffic Control
Table 5: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Pedestrians and Bicyclists.
Table 6: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Roadway
Table 7: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Non-Infrastructure
Table 8: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Roadway
Table 9: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Non-Infrastructure

List of Figures

Figure 1: MAP-21 Program Apportionments
Figure 2: Number of Projects by Project Cost
Figure 3. Number of Projects by Functional Class
Figure 4. Average Total Cost of Projects by Functional Class
Figure 5. Number of Projects by Road Ownership
Figure 6. Average Total Cost of Projects by Road Ownership
Figure 7. Number of Projects by Improvement Category
Figure 8. Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category
Figure 9: Number of Intersection Geometry Projects by Subcategory
Figure 10: Number of Traffic Control Projects by Subcategory
Figure 11: Number of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Projects by Subcategory
Figure 12: Number of Roadway Projects by Subcategory
Figure 13: Number of Non-Infrastructure Projects by Subcategory
Figure 14: Number of Projects by AASHTO SHSP Emphasis Area
Figure 15: Number of Roadway Projects by Subcategory
Figure 16: Number of Non-Infrastructure Projects by Subcategory
Figure 17: Number of Projects by SHSP Emphasis Area

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Executive Summary

The Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) is a core Federal-aid program with the purpose to achieve a significant reduction in fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads. Under the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act, Congress authorized approximately $2.4 billion per year for States to achieve this goal through the implementation of highway safety improvement projects, which is nearly double the amount that was authorized under the previous legislative act. The States not only met this challenge, but far exceeded it obligating nearly $3 billion for over 3,200 highway safety improvement projects in 2014.

These highway safety improvement projects come in all shapes and sizes. Some HSIP projects are much bigger in scope than others, while other projects include countermeasure installations across multiple sites. The 2014 HSIP National Summary Report provides an aggregate summary of the type and cost of projects across all States. Highlights of the States' 2014 HSIP implementation efforts are provided below.

While the number and cost of HSIP projects slightly decreased in 2014 from 2013, the number of HSIP projects under MAP-21 (2013-2014) has increased substantially as compared to 2010-2012. Over the past six years, States obligated $12.6 billion for more than 15,000 highway safety improvement projects.

Background

The Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) is a core Federal-aid program with the objective to achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads through the implementation of highway safety improvement projects. The HSIP, similar to other Federal-aid programs, is a federally-funded, state administered program. The FHWA establishes the HSIP requirements via 23 CFR 924, and the States develop and administer a program to best meet their needs.

The HSIP requires a data-driven, strategic approach to improving highway safety on all public roads that focuses on performance. To obligate HSIP funds, each State shall:

States are also required to submit a report that describes the progress being made to implement highway safety improvement projects and the effectiveness of those improvements. The HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance outlines the content and schedule for the annual HSIP report. The HSIP report should include, at a minimum, a discussion of each State's:

The HSIP 2014 National Summary Report compiles and summarizes aggregate information related to the States progress in implementing HSIP projects during the 2014 reporting cycle. Progress in implementing HSIP projects is described based on the amount of HSIP funds available and the number and general listing of projects obligated as documented in the 2014 HSIP reports. The HSIP 2014 National Summary Report is not intended to compare states; rather to illustrate how the states are collectively implementing the HSIP to reduce fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads across the nation.

A summary of available funding and the number and general listing of projects from prior years is available in the HSIP National Summary Baseline Report: 2009-2012 and HSIP 2013 National Summary Report.

HSIP Funding Approach

Prior to MAP-21, each apportioned program had its own formula for distribution, and the total amount of Federal assistance a State received was the sum of the amounts it received for each program. MAP-21 instead provides a total apportionment for each State and then divides that apportionment amount among individual apportioned programs.

MAP-21 authorizes a total combined amount ($37.5 billion in FY13 and $37.8 billion in FY14) in contract authority to fund five formula programs (including certain set-asides within the programs described below):

Figure 1 illustrates the distribution of funds across program under MAP-21.

MAP-21 Program Apportionments

Figure 1 : MAP-21 Program Apportionments

HSIP receives 7% of the States apportionment remaining after allocations to CMAQ and Metropolitan Planning, which amounts to approximately $2.4 billion each year, nearly double the amount apportioned to HSIP under SAFETEA-LU. The following sums are set-aside from the State's HSIP apportionment:

In addition, if the High Risk Rural Roads Special rule applies to a State, then in the next fiscal year the State must obligate an amount at least equal to 200% of its FY 2009 HRRR set-aside for high risk rural roads.

The final HSIP apportionment represents the amount of funding available to States for the advancement of highway safety improvement projects.

HSIP Projects Overview

States provide project specific information for all projects obligated with HSIP funds during the reporting period in their annual HSIP reports. The reporting period is defined by the State and can be calendar year, state fiscal year or federal fiscal year. For 2014, the States obligated $2.96B for 3,214 total projects. These obligations utilized funds apportioned during the 2014 fiscal year as well as HSIP funds available from previous years' apportionments.

As per the HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance, project specific information includes:

The following sections present various summaries of the nationwide HSIP project obligations for the 2014 reporting cycle. It should be noted that limited analysis of the project information can be done because not all states have included all of the above information for each project in their annual HSIP reports. Full use of the HSIP online reporting tool and compliance with the most recent HSIP reporting guidance will enable more complete and accurate reporting of national HSIP project data. In addition, HSIP projects come in all shapes and sizes. For example, some HSIP projects may be much bigger in scope than others, countermeasure installations across multiple sites, or non-infrastructure projects (i.e. transportation safety planning, data improvements). Nonetheless, the summaries in the following sections provide a broad scale analysis of HSIP spending in 2014.

Project Cost

The cost per HSIP project in 2014 ranged widely. Some projects were small in scope and cost, such as replacing signs on a particular route. Others were higher cost projects, such as widening a highway or reconfiguring an intersection. Figure 2 shows the breakdown by project cost, grouped into general categories with breakpoints at $100,000, $500,000, and $1,000,000.

Number of Projects by Project Cost

Figure 2 : Number of Projects by Project Cost

Roughly two-thirds of the projects had costs less than $500K. A small percentage (14 percent) fell into the $500K – $1M category. The remaining 23 percent were high cost projects totaling $1M or more. The top five sub categories selected for these high cost projects are:

In 2013, the breakdown was similar. Sixty-eight percent of projects had costs less than $500K, 12 percent fell into the $500K – $1M category, and the remaining 20 percent were more than $1M.

Functional Class and Ownership

Figure 3 through Figure 7 illustrate the distribution of projects by the types of roads on which they were conducted. Figure 3 shows number of projects by functional class, following the HPMS classification scheme; Figure 4 shows average total cost of projects by functional class; Figure 5 shows the number and average total cost of projects by urban/rural designation; Figure 6 shows projects by the agency who owns the road; and Figure 7 shows average total cost of projects by the agency who owns the road. If the functional class or road ownership was not indicated, the project is counted under the "unknown" category. Examples of classifications in the "other" category include multiple functional classes, state or citywide implementation, or non-infrastructure projects.

Number of Projects by Functional Class

Figure 3. Number of Projects by Functional Class

Most projects were categorized as "Unknown" indicating that the State did not associate a functional class for a particular project. Projects that were associated with a functional class were most often categorized as "Rural Major Collector" or "Urban Principal Arterial – Other". There were 415 projects categorized as "Other" and of those, roughly 295 were categorized as multiple classes or systemic. Roughly another 30 were categorized as "n/a" due to the fact that they were non-infrastructure projects.

Number of Projects by Functional Class

Figure 4. Average Total Cost of Projects by Functional Class

Figure 4 shows the average total cost of projects by functional class. It is important to note that not every project had an associated cost so the average is based on the number of projects which had cost information available. Projects categorized as "Urban Principal Arterial – Interstate" had the highest average total cost per project of $2.73 million and projects categorized as "Rural Local Road or Street" had the lowest average total cost per project of $220,000.

Figure 5. Number and Average Total Cost of Projects by Urban/Rural Designation

Figure 5 illustrates the number and average total cost of projects by urban/rural designation. There are fewer total urban projects than rural projects but the average total cost of the urban projects is greater than the average total cost of the rural projects.

Number of Projects by Road Ownership

Figure 6. Number of Projects by Road Ownership

States implement most projects on roads owned by a "State Highway Agency" or "Unknown" (indicating that the State did not indicate road ownership for a particular project). There were 164 projects categorized as "Other" and of those, roughly 90 were categorized in state-defined ownership categories. No projects were categorized for the following ownerships:

Average Total Cost of Projects by Road Ownership

Figure 7. Average Total Cost of Projects by Road Ownership

Figure 7 shows the average total cost of projects by road ownership. It is important to note that not every project had an associated cost so the average is based on the number of projects which had cost information available. Projects categorized as "State Highway Agency" had the highest average total cost per project of $1.07 million and projects categorized as "Other State Agency" had the lowest average total cost per project of $1,000.

Improvement Categories and Subcategories

Under the HSIP MAP-21 reporting guidance, each project should be assigned a general improvement category and a subcategory under that general category. While a single project may consist of multiple project types, FHWA directs States to assign each project to only one category. The category chosen should align with the primary purpose of the project. Figure 8 and Figure 9 show the distribution of the number of projects by general improvement category. Figure 10 and Figure 11 combined show the distribution of the total cost of projects by general improvement category. Projects categorized as "Unknown" indicate that there was no general improvement category assigned by the State. Figure 12 through Figure 16 show the breakdown of the number of projects by subcategory for five improvement categories: Intersection geometry, Intersection traffic control, Pedestrians and bicyclists, Roadway, and Non-infrastructure. More detailed tables with the cost spent in each subcategory are available in Appendix B. For ease of reporting, similar sub categories were grouped together. For example, in Figure 12 below, "Auxiliary lanes – other" combines adding acceleration lanes, adding auxiliary through lanes, adding two way left turn lanes, and several other related subcategories.

Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Top 11)

Figure 8. Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Top 11)

Figure 8 shows the number of projects by improvement category (top 11) as classified in the HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance. Based on the project information reported by the States, the top five improvement categories are roadway, intersection traffic control, intersection geometry, roadside, and shoulder treatments. In 2013, the top five improvement categories were the same and the number of projects classified in each were similar.

Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Bottom 11)

Figure 9. Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Bottom 11)

Figure 9 shows the number of projects by improvement category (bottom 11) as classified in the HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance. In 2014, there were half as many projects categorized as "Interchange design" as in 2013. Also in 2014, there were 14 projects categorized as "Work zone" compared to just one project in 2013. The ranking of the remaining project categories was similar in both years.

Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (top 11)

Figure 10. Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (top 11)

Figure 10 shows the average total cost of projects by improvement category (top 11). Again, it is important to note that not every project had an associated cost so the average is based on the number of projects with cost available.

Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (bottom 11)

Figure 11. Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (bottom 11)

Based on project information reported by the States, the lowest average HSIP cost projects are in the following categories:

Number of Intersection Geometry Projects by Subcategory

Figure 12: Number of Intersection Geometry Projects by Subcategory

For the Intersection geometry category, most projects were sub categorized as "Intersection geometrics – other/unknown" (136 of 379 projects), "Auxiliary lanes – other" (99 of 379 projects), and "Auxiliary lanes – add left-turn lane" (92 of 379 projects). Examples of projects in the "Intersection geometrics – other/unknown" subcategory include widen/resurface to construct J turns and general intersection safety improvement projects. The "Intersection geometrics – other/unknown" subcategory was predominately used without any project description, therefore, no other information is available for these projects.

Number of Traffic Control Projects by Subcategory

Figure 13: Number of Traffic Control Projects by Subcategory

For the Intersection traffic control category, most projects were subcategorized as "Modify traffic signal" (219 of 505 projects) which includes signal replacement/modernization, addition of new signals, flashing yellow arrow, and vehicle preemption. Examples of projects in the "Intersection traffic control – other/unknown" sub category include projects described as general intersection safety improvement projects. The "Intersection traffic control – other/unknown" subcategory was predominately used without any project description, therefore, no other information is available for these projects.

Number of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Projects by Subcategory

Figure 14: Number of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Projects by Subcategory

For the Pedestrians and bicyclists category, most projects were subcategorized as "Miscellaneous pedestrian and bicyclist improvements" (44 of 118 projects) and "Install or modify pedestrian signal" (31 of 188 projects). Many of the projects in the "Miscellaneous pedestrian and bicyclist improvements" subcategory are Safe Routes to School activities.

Number of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Projects by Subcategory

Figure 15: Number of Roadway Projects by Subcategory

For the Roadway category, most projects were subcategorized as "Rumble strips" (344 of 722 projects) and "Roadway – other/unknown" (201 of 722 projects). Examples of projects in the "Roadway – other/unknown" subcategory were combinations projects such as "repair pavement structure, replace guardrail, and pavement markers" and "sight distance-superelevation-shoulder widening".

Number of Non-Infrastructure Projects by Subcategory

Figure 16: Number of Non-Infrastructure Projects by Subcategory

For the Non-infrastructure category, most projects were subcategorized as "Data/traffic records" (38 of 148 projects), "Transportation safety planning" (34 of 148 projects), and "Non-infrastructure – other/unknown" (30 of 148 projects). Projects in the "Non-infrastructure – other/unknown" subcategory are largely undescribed. A few examples include calibrating state specific Highway Safety Manual safety performance functions, development of statewide safety planning tools, and development of HSIP/safety operations manuals.

SHSP Emphasis Areas

Based on a review of State SHSPs, FHWA identified the eight SHSP emphasis areas common across most States. These emphasis areas are used in the HSIP online reporting tool for categorizing HSIP projects. Figure 17 presents the number of HSIP projects categorized by SHSP emphasis area. For consistency and national reporting purposes, state-defined SHSP emphasis areas were assigned to these emphasis areas, where possible. Please note that States sometimes categorize a single project by several SHSP Emphasis Areas. Therefore, for the purpose of Figure 17 , a single project may be counted more than once. For example, the State recently completed an intersection improvement project that enhanced safety for pedestrians. This project could be categorized as "Intersections" as well "Pedestrians" and is therefore counted once in each category.

About one-third of the projects were categorized as "Roadway Departure", one-quarter were categorized as "Intersections", and one-quarter categorized as "Unknown/Other". Examples of other categories used by the States include: "Driver Behavior & Awareness", "Educational Efforts", and "Non-Infrastructure".

Number of Projects by SHSP Emphasis Area

Figure 17: Number of Projects by SHSP Emphasis Area

2013-2014 Comparison

Most states prepared their 2013 and 2014 HSIP reports in accordance with the MAP-21 HSIP Reporting Guidance; therefore FHWA can make a direct comparison of information related to the 2013 and 2014 highway safety improvement projects. As can be seen in Table 1 below, the total number of projects and cost of projects did not change much from 2013 to 2014. The breakdown in project costs for various breakpoints was also similar.

Table 1. Total number of projects and project cost breakdown, 2013-2014

Year 2013 Percentage 2014 Percentage
Number of projects 3292   3266  
Num. of projects (with cost info.)* 3253   3257  
Cost of projects $3.09B   $2.99B  
Average cost per project $950,840   $921,072  
 
Number of projects < $100K 1176 37% 1018 31%
Number of projects $100K – $499K 985 31% 1037 32%
Number of projects $500K-$1M 401 13% 443 14%
Number of projects $1M+ 631 20% 731 23%

Table 2 shows the comparison between 2013 and 2014 of the number of projects and average total cost of projects for various project types highlighted in this report. Overall, number and cost of projects has remained roughly the same.

Table 2. Number of projects and average total project cost for various project types, 2013-2014

Project Type Num Projects 2013 Avg Cost 2013 Num Projects 2014 Avg Cost 2014
Urban projects 826 $1.4M 912 $1.3M
Rural projects 1244 $896K 1325 $686K
Roadway projects 854 $635K 722 $935K
Intersection traffic control projects 420 $667K 505 $677K
Intersection geometry projects 376 $1.2M 379 $972K
Ped/bike projects 103 $528K 118 $485K
Non-infrastructure projects 109 $444K 148 $563K

Comparison to Previous Years

The HSIP National Summary Baseline Report 2009-2012 reported project and cost information for HSIP reports submitted by the States for years 2009-2012. The information from the baseline report is summarized below with the purpose of comparing basic cost and project information to the 2013 and 2014 reports. Table 3 below shows that States obligated $12.6B for more than 15,000 projects over the six-year period. These obligations include not only HSIP funds apportioned during the reporting period (2009-2014), but also HSIP funds available from previous years' apportionments.

Table 3: Total Number and Cost of Projects by Year

Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Total
Number of Projects 1684 2386 2523 2429 3292 3266 15580
Number of Projects (with cost info.)* 1609 2348 2449 2374 3253 3257 15290
Cost of projects $1.61B $1.46B $1.78B $1.65B $3.09B $2.99B $12.6B
Avg. Cost Per Project $1.00M $620,684 $725,550 $695,721 $950,840 $921,072 $823,593
*Not all states provided cost data for all projects.

Summary

The HSIP is a strategic program that uses data and analysis to target safety resources. This HSIP 2014 National Summary Report shows that in 2014, States directed HSIP funds to address the predominant infrastructure – related crash types – roadway departure, intersection and pedestrian crashes. This is similar to the 2009-2012 HSIP National Summary Baseline Report and the HSIP 2013 National Summary Report. The number and cost of HSIP projects slightly decreased in 2014 from 2013. However, overall, the number of HSIP projects has increased from approximately 2,300 projects per year (2010-2012) to 3,200 projects per year in 2013 and 2014. In addition, HSIP project obligations slightly decreased from approximately $3.09B in 2013 to $2.99B in 2014.

References

FHWA, MAP-21 Apportionment Fact Sheet
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/map21/factsheets/apportionment.cfm

FHWA, HSIP Apportionment Notices
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/notices/

FHWA, HSIP MAP-21 Fact Sheet
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/map21/factsheets/hsip.cfm

FHWA, HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance, February 13, 2013
https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/map21/guidance/guidehsipreport.cfm

FHWA, HSIP Online Reporting Tool
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/resources/onrpttool/

FHWA, HSIP National Summary Baseline Report 2009-2012
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/reports/nsbrpt_2009_2012.cfm

FHWA, HSIP 2013 National Summary Report
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/reports/nsbrpt2013.cfm

2014 State HSIP Reports
http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/reports/

Appendix A: Full Description of HSIP Improvement Categories and Sub Categories for 2013 HSIP Reporting Guidance

Category Sub-category
Access management Access management – other
Change in access – close or restrict existing access
Change in access – miscellaneous/unspecified
Grassed median – extend existing
Median crossover – close crossover
Median crossover – directional crossover
Median crossover – relocate existing
Median crossover – unspecified
Raised island – install new
Raised island – modify existing
Raised island – remove existing
Raised island – unspecified
Advanced technology and ITS Advanced technology and ITS – other
Congestion detection / traffic monitoring system
Dynamic message signs
Over height vehicle detection
Alignment Alignment – other
Horizontal curve realignment
Horizontal and vertical alignment
Vertical alignment or elevation change
Animal-related Animal related
Interchange design Acceleration / deceleration / merge lane
Convert at-grade intersection to interchange
Extend existing lane on ramp
Improve intersection radius at ramp terminus
Installation of new lane on ramp
Interchange design – other
Ramp closure
Ramp metering
Intersectiongeometry Auxiliary lanes – add acceleration lane
Auxiliary lanes – add auxiliary through lane
Auxiliary lanes – add left-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – add right-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – add right-turn lane (free-flow)
Auxiliary lanes – add slip lane
Auxiliary lanes – add two-way left-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – extend acceleration/deceleration lane
Auxiliary lanes – extend existing left-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – extend existing right-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Auxiliary lanes – modify acceleration lane
Auxiliary lanes – modify auxiliary through lane
Auxiliary lanes – modify free-flow turn  lane
Auxiliary lanes – modify left-turn lane offset
Auxiliary lanes – modify right-turn lane offset
Auxiliary lanes – modify turn lane storage
Auxiliary lanes – modify turn lane taper
Auxiliary lanes – modify two-way left-turn lane
Intersection geometrics – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Intersection geometrics – modify intersection corner radius
Intersection geometrics – modify skew angle
Intersection geometrics – realignment to align offset cross streets
Intersection geometrics – realignment to increase cross street offset
Intersection geometrics – re-assign existing lane use
Intersection geometry – other
Splitter island – install on one or more approaches
Splitter island – remove from one or more approaches
Splitter island – unspecified
Through lanes – add additional through lane
Intersection traffic control Intersection flashers – add "when flashing" warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add advance emergency vehicle warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add advance heavy vehicle warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add advance intersection warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Intersection flashers – add overhead (actuated)
Intersection flashers – add overhead (continuous)
Intersection flashers – add stop sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – modify existing
Intersection flashers – remove existing
Intersection signing – add basic advance warning
Intersection signing – add enhanced advance warning (double-up and/or oversize)
Intersection signing – add enhanced regulatory sign (double-up and/or oversize)
Intersection signing – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Intersection signing – relocate existing regulatory sign
Intersection traffic control – other
Modify control – all-way stop to roundabout
Modify control – modifications to roundabout
Modify control – no control to roundabout
Modify control – no control to two-way stop
Modify control – remove right-turn yield
Modify control – reverse priority of stop condition
Modify control – traffic signal to roundabout
Modify control – two-way stop to all-way stop
Modify control – two-way stop to roundabout
Modify control – two-way yield to two-way stop
Pavement Markings – add advance signal ahead
Pavement markings – add advance stop ahead
Pavement markings – add dashed edge line along mainline
Pavement markings – add lane use symbols
Pavement markings – add stop line
Pavement markings – add yield line
Pavement markings – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Pavement markings – refresh existing pavement markings
Modify traffic signal – add additional signal heads
Modify traffic signal – add backplates
Modify traffic signal – add backplates with retroreflective borders
Modify traffic signal – add closed loop system
Modify traffic signal – add emergency vehicle preemption
Modify traffic signal – add flashing yellow arrow
Modify traffic signal – add long vehicle detection
Modify traffic signal – add railroad preemption
Modify traffic signal – add wireless system
Modify traffic signal – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Modify traffic signal – modernization/replacement
Modify traffic signal – modify signal mounting (spanwire to mast arm)
Modify traffic signal – remove existing signal
Modify traffic signal – replace existing indications (incandescent-to-LED and/or 8-to-12 inch dia.)
Modify traffic signal timing – left-turn phasing (permissive to protected/permissive)
Modify traffic signal timing – left-turn phasing (permissive to protected-only)
Modify traffic signal timing – adjust clearance interval (yellow change and/or all-red)
Modify traffic signal timing – general retiming
Modify traffic signal timing – signal coordination
Systemic improvements – signal-controlled
Systemic improvements – stop-controlled
Lighting Continuous roadway lighting
Intersection lighting
Lighting – other
Site lighting – horizontal curve
Site lighting – intersection
Site lighting – interchange
Site lighting – pedestrian crosswalk
Miscellaneous Miscellaneous
Non-infrastructure Educational efforts
Enforcement
Data/traffic records
Non-infrastructure – other
Outreach
Road safety audits
Training and workforce development
Transportation safety planning
Parking Modify parking
Parking – other
Remove parking
Restrict parking
Truck parking facilities
Pedestrians and bicyclists Crosswalk
Install new "smart" crosswalk
Install new crosswalk
Install sidewalk
Medians and pedestrian refuge areas
Miscellaneous pedestrians and bicyclists
Modify existing crosswalk
Pedestrian beacons
Pedestrian bridge
Pedestrian signal
Pedestrian signal – audible device
Pedestrian signal – Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon
Pedestrian signal – install new at intersection
Pedestrian signal – install new at non-intersection location
Pedestrian signal – modify existing
Pedestrian signal – remove existing
Pedestrian warning signs – add/modify flashers
Pedestrian warning signs – overhead
Railroad grade crossings Grade separation
Model enforcement activity
Protective devices
Railroad grade crossing gates
Railroad grade crossing signing
Railroad grade crossings – other
Surface treatment
Upgrade railroad crossing signal
Widen crossing for additional lane
Roadside Barrier end treatments (crash cushions, terminals)
Barrier transitions
Barrier – cable
Barrier – concrete
Barrier – metal
Barrier – other
Barrier – removal
Curb or curb and gutter
Drainage improvements
Fencing
Removal of roadside objects (trees, poles, etc.)
Roadside grading
Roadside – other
Roadway Install / remove / modify passing zone
Pavement surface – high friction surface
Pavement surface – miscellaneous
Roadway narrowing (road diet, roadway reconfiguration)
Roadway – other
Roadway – restripe to revise separation between opposing lanes and/or shoulder widths
Roadway widening – add lane(s) along segment
Roadway widening – curve
Roadway widening – travel lanes
Rumble strips – center
Rumble strips – edge or shoulder
Rumble strips – transverse
Rumble strips – unspecified or other
Superelevation / cross slope
Roadway delineation Improve retroreflectivity
Longitudinal pavement markings – new
Longitudinal pavement markings – remarking
Delineators post-mounted or on barrier
Raised pavement markers
Roadway delineation – other
Roadway signs and traffic control Curve-related warning signs and flashers
Sign sheeting – upgrade or replacement
Roadway signs and traffic control – other
Roadway signs (including post) – new or updated
Shoulder treatments Widen shoulder – paved or other
Pave existing shoulders
Shoulder grading
Shoulder treatments – other
Speed management Modify speed limit
Radar speed signs
Speed detection system / truck warning
Speed management – other
Traffic calming feature
Work Zone Work zone

Appendix B. Detailed Tables of Project Costs Summaries

Table 4: Number and Cost of 2014 Projects by Improvement Category

Improvement Category Number of Projects Total Cost of Projects* Average Total Cost* Total HSIP Cost of Projects* Average HSIP Cost*
Access management 44 $32,141,704.64 $730,493.29 $15,956,142.85 $469,298.32
Advanced technology and ITS 32 $97,248,822.63 $3,039,025.71 $21,541,018.47 $742,793.74
Alignment 59 $60,497,797.52 $1,025,386.40 $40,080,788.75 $703,171.73
Animal-related 3 $4,734,751.00 $1,578,250.33 $3,657,000.00 $1,219,000.00
Interchange design 40 $224,660,024.70 $5,616,500.62 $39,537,728.17 $1,129,649.38
Intersection geometry 379 $368,313,376.72 $971,803.10 $244,373,603.90 $655,157.12
Intersection traffic control 505 $339,054,528.95 $676,755.55 $254,780,379.68 $516,795.90
Lighting 40 $48,448,386.46 $1,211,209.66 $25,203,935.82 $630,098.40
Miscellaneous 74 $52,228,356.64 $705,788.60 $43,862,898.71 $609,206.93
Multiple 2 $2,349,200.00 $1,174,600.00    
Non-infrastructure 148 $83,350,652.89 $563,180.09 $74,068,505.79 $510,817.28
Parking 2 $1,017,607.00 $508,803.50 $925,456.00 $462,728.00
Pedestrians and bicyclists 118 $57,247,653.74 $485,149.61 $47,472,978.18 $402,313.37
Railroad grade crossings 13 $5,869,460.99 $451,497.00 $4,952,235.72 $380,941.21
Roadside 303 $231,469,904.15 $763,927.08 $190,975,246.19 $647,373.72
Roadway 722 $672,907,191.64 $934,593.32 $359,546,430.98 $502,862.14
Roadway delineation 160 $117,859,258.55 $736,620.37 $87,687,250.88 $548,045.32
Roadway signs and traffic control 185 $58,007,161.69 $318,720.67 $56,629,838.53 $307,770.86
Shoulder treatments 193 $377,927,662.76 $1,958,174.42 $213,551,495.45 $1,106,484.43
Speed management 3 $208,139.00 $69,379.67 $193,139.00 $64,379.67
Work Zone 14 $3,360,560.30 $240,040.02 $2,928,060.04 $209,147.15
Unknown 227 $161,027,919.77 $709,374.10 $28,641,673.00 $201,701.92
Total 3266 $2,999,930,121.74 $921,071.58 $1,756,565,806.11 $563,001.86

* Not all states provided cost data for all projects in a given improvement category.

Table 5: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Geometry

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Auxiliary lanes – add left-turn lane 92 $98,150,952
Auxiliary lanes – add right-turn lane 19 $19,872,036
Auxiliary lanes – other 99 $76,545,136
Intersection geometrics – modify skew angle 20 $10,303,433
Intersection geometrics – other/unknown 136 $153,260,723
Intersection geometrics – realignment to improve offset 13 $10,181,097
Total 379. $368,313,377

Table 6: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Traffic Control

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Intersection flashers and signing 65 $9,448,113
Intersection traffic control – other/unknown 117 $57,210,865
Modify control to roundabout 70 $95,532,287
Modify traffic signal 219 $152,114,801
Modify traffic signal timing or phasing 27 $22,653,219
Pavement markings 7 $2,095,244
Total 505 $339,054,529

Table 7: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Pedestrians and Bicyclists

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Install or modify crosswalk 23 $11,820,499
Install or modify pedestrian signal 31 $13,852,377
Install sidewalk 20 $9,097,960
Miscellaneous pedestrian and bicyclist improvements 44 $22,476,818
Total 118 $57,247,654

Table 8: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Roadway

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Pavement surface

112

$122,611,934

Roadway – other/unknown

201

$178,355,380

Roadway narrowing (road diet, roadway reconfiguration)

9

$5,429,806

Roadway widening

38

$160,398,356

Rumble strips

344

$200,617,348

Superelevation / cross slope 18

$5,494,367

Total 722 $672,907,192

Table 9: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Non-Infrastructure

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Data/traffic records 38 $8,918,041
Educational efforts/outreach 21 $12,449,466
Enforcement 8 $8,855,806
Non-infrastructure – other/unknown 30 $15,477,797
Road safety audits 15 $2,299,779
Training and workforce development 2 $848,098
Transportation safety planning 34 $34,501,667
Total 48 $83,350,653
Page last modified on November 10, 2015.
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