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FHWA Home / Safety / Pedestrian & Bicycle / Final Detailed Findings Report for Marketing Plan and Outreach Materials

Final Detailed Findings Report for Marketing Plan and Outreach Materials that Promote Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety to Different Hispanic Populations in the United States

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SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION

1.1 Project Background

In the United States, 4,749 pedestrians were killed, and about 70,000 were injured in collisions with motor vehicles in the year 2003 (Traffic Safety Facts 2003: Pedestrians). An additional 622 pedalcyclists (mostly bicyclists) were killed, and 46,000 injured, in collisions with motor vehicles (Traffic Safety Facts 2003: Pedalcyclists). This means that every day, 318 pedestrians and bicyclists are injured and nearly 15 lose their lives. These grim statistics clearly indicate that pedestrian and bicycle safety is a national problem, with staggering human and economic costs.

According to a 2004 report by the Center for Applied Research and The Media Network, an average of 545 Hispanic pedestrians and 79 Hispanic bicyclists are killed in crashes with motor vehicles every year. These numbers are likely to increase as the Hispanic population in the U.S. continues to increase. There is a clear need to include Hispanics as part of the target audience in any pedestrian/bicycle safety education program. With that need in mind, the Federal Highway Administration sponsored this project, "Marketing Plan and Outreach Materials that Promote Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety to Different Hispanic Populations in the United States".

1.2 Task 2 (Detailed findings report) Background

This literature review for the detailed findings report was conducted as part of Task 2 ("Develop a Marketing Plan of Most Effective Methods of Promoting Bicycle and Pedestrian Safety to Hispanic Audiences in the United States"). The objective of this review is to develop a marketing plan of the most effective methods of promoting bicycle and pedestrian safety to Hispanic audiences.

The extent of the task was delineated in the Work Plan submitted to FHWA in November 2004. It stated that:

The SAIC team, principally Sprinkle, will review the FHWA's "Determining the Extent of the Highway Safety Problem as it Relates to Hispanic Populations in the United States" (when completed), NHTSA's "Highway Safety Needs of U.S. Hispanic Communities: Issues and Strategies," and other documents as deemed appropriate. SAIC staff will meet with members of the MWCOG's [Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments] Street Smart Program to review their Hispanic outreach materials and learn about their market research performed to date. SAIC staff will also review any other relevant materials developed for Hispanic audiences, such as material that helps develop a full understanding of the general issues faced by Hispanic immigrants to the U.S. (e.g., language barriers); staff members have collected informative materials developed for Hispanic audiences by the Pan American Health Organization.

The materials included in this detailed findings report were identified and obtained through a variety of sources:

The marketing plan that developed under this task will address the following questions at a minimum:

Each item in the detailed findings report is presented in the following format: Title, Introduction and/or Summary, Questions answered, Outstanding questions.

The information in the detailed findings report allows determination of which questions are, and are not, covered in existing materials. Subsequently, we will refine the list of questions to address in the Marketing Plan with input from FHWA and NHTSA, and the refined questions will inform the development and conduct of focus groups.

1.3 Summary of Findings from Literature Review

The following summary table lists each item in the detailed findings report along with how each item addresses the questions.

Table 1a. Questions Addressed in the Literature
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Literature
Questions Highway Safety Needs of U.S. Hispanic Communities Hispanic Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety (CAR and TMN) The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem Pedestrian Safety Program (NHTSA)
In what pedestrian and bicycle safety-related areas is communication with Hispanic audiences most needed? Not addressed
  1. General awareness of traffic signs and regulations
  2. Sources of info about traffic signs and regulations
  1. Intersections on multi-lane roads
  2. Obey traffic laws
  3. How to use crosswalks
  4. Educating drivers on ped/bike safety
Impaired pedestrians
What types of messages are most likely to have the most impact? Graphic and explicit descriptions of motor vehicle crashes and the impact on families Graphics and visuals Graphics and visuals Not addressed
What are the best "media" for getting the messages across? TV, radio, print – may differ by location Distribute info via TV, radio, transit, churches, schools, supermarkets, etc. Distribute info via TV, radio, transit, churches, schools, supermarkets, etc. Report, slide program with presenter's guide, educator's guide, brochures, telenovelas.
Which Hispanic groups should be targeted? Young inexperienced drivers, recent immigrants, rural residents, elderly drivers, unlicensed and uninsured drivers Children, new immigrants, seniors Hispanics of Mexican origin, males, ages 21–29 Older pedestrians and children
Which age groups should be targeted? Young and elderly drivers Children, seniors 21–29 Older pedestrians and children
Did not target specific groups
Should different cultural groups be targeted? Not addressed No one cultural group is most at risk Mexican origin Did not target specific groups
Should materials be presented just in Spanish, or in English as well? Spanish only
English only
Spanish & English
Bilingual Bilingual Spanish
Bilingual

Table 1b. Questions Addressed in the Literature
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Literature
Questions Pedestrian Safety Campaign Planner ¡Yo camino – yo cuento! Mecklenburg Safe Communities Program Corazón di mi vida
In what pedestrian and bicycle safety-related areas is communication with Hispanic audiences most needed?
  1. Driver yielding to pedestrians
  2. Pedestrian understanding of signals
  3. Pedestrian visibility
Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed
What types of messages are most likely to have the most impact? Emotional appeal
  1. Slogans that encourage walking
  2. Illustrations of comic strip characters enjoying walking
  1. Photos and verbal info
  2. Impacts of crashes on families
Value of family as reason to practice passenger safety
What are the best "media" for getting the messages across? TV, radio, print, brochures Billboards, door decals, brochures Radio and print Hangers, tags, bumper stickers, games, video – distributed through parent gatherings, religious blessings, press conferences, safety seat clinics
Which Hispanic groups should be targeted? Not addressed Did not target specific groups Did not target specific groups Did not target specific groups
Which age groups should be targeted? Young drivers
Working age adult pedestrians
Did not target specific groups Did not target specific groups Parents of young children
Should different cultural groups be targeted? Did not target specific groups Did not target specific groups Did not target specific groups Did not target specific groups
Should materials be presented just in Spanish, or in English as well? Bilingual Spanish
Bilingual
Spanish only Bilingual

Table 1c. Questions Addressed in the Literature
empty cell
Literature
Questions Street Smart 2004 Campaign The Madrina-Padrino Public Safety Project Traffic Safety in Communities of Color Traffic Safety in Latino Communities
In what pedestrian and bicycle safety-related areas is communication with Hispanic audiences most needed?
  1. Pedestrian laws in crosswalks
  2. Drivers yielding to pedestrians in crosswalks
  3. Improving driver and pedestrian behavior
Not addressed Not addressed Not addressed
What types of messages are most likely to have the most impact? "Imagine the impact" of a crash on the lives and families of pedestrians and drivers Did not discuss specific message Family-oriented, highly personalized, non-confrontational
  1. Clear, consistent, and free of jargon
  2. Reflect real life
  3. Address cultural factors
What are the best "media" for getting the messages across? TV, radio, print ads, transit, posters, handouts, enforcement activities Media outreach through newspaper stories and TV news coverage Comprehensive efforts that involve law enforcement, educators, city planners, media representatives, community leaders, physicians, national organizations TV, fotonovelas
Which Hispanic groups should be targeted? Drivers (of all ethnic and racial groups) Recent immigrants Highest-risk groups Recent immigrants
Which age groups should be targeted? Males 18–34 Did not target specific groups Highest-risk groups Not addressed
Should different cultural groups be targeted? Did not target specific groups Did not target specific groups, but population of pilot sites is mostly Mexican Not addressed Report does not specify groups; acknowledges variety of cultural orientations
Should materials be presented just in Spanish, or in English as well? Bilingual Not specified in report Not addressed Not specified in report

1.4 Additional Questions

The reports and campaigns reviewed also shed light on two additional questions: how different is the Hispanic population from the general population (other than language issues), and how effective are the methods currently used on the general population.

For the first question, the family is one of the most powerful institutions so any public awareness campaign must feature the family (according to Highway Safety Needs of U.S. Hispanic Communities: Issues and Strategies). This theme has been featured in various campaigns. These include the Yo camino – yo cuento (which features billboards depicting a happy family walking together), the Mecklenburg Safe Communities Program (which includes a RadioNovela in which a woman is concerned about how she and her children will manage after her husband has died in a traffic crash) and the Madrina-Padrino Public Safety Project (just as a Latino child may have a madrina (godmother) and padrino (godfather) to ensure his/her safety, individuals and organizations are encouraged to serve as madrinas and padrinos to the community).

Regarding the second question, the Street Smart campaign conducted in 2004 included TV, radio, newspaper and transit ads, public relations activities, and posters and handouts. A similar campaign was conducted in 2002. Surveys of motorists indicated increased awareness of the campaign and of police efforts to crack down on drivers who did not yield to pedestrians. However, the motorist-reported incidence of (1) pedestrians walking without concern for motor vehicles and (2) drivers not yielding to pedestrians in crosswalks remained the same after the campaign as it was before.

FHWA's Pedestrian Safety Campaign includes TV, radio and print ads with messages pertaining to motorist yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians looking before they cross and pedestrian understanding of traffic signals. This campaign is being tested in three cities – Missoula, MT, Oceanside, CA and Washington, DC. An ongoing research project, scheduled to be completed in September 2005, is evaluating the effectiveness of the campaigns with respect to (1) pedestrian and motorist awareness of the campaigns, (2) pedestrian and motorist understanding of safe and legal behaviors, and (3) observed pedestrian and motorist behaviors.

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Page last modified on January 31, 2013.
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