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FHWA Home / Safety / Pedestrian & Bicycle / Pedestrians and Transit

Pedestrian Safety Guide for Transit Agencies

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References

1Project ACTION: Toolkit for the Assessment of Bus Stop Accessibility and Safety. Easter Seals, 2006. http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit.

2Pedestrian Safety and Accessibility Audit Tools. Queensland Transport, Queensland, Australia, 2006.

3Pedestrian- and Transit-Friendly Design: A Primer for Smart Growth. Reid Ewing for the Smart Growth Network, Washington, DC, 1999. http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/ptfd_primer.pdf.

4Presentation by Tom Harrington at Bicycle and Pedestrian Access to Transit: Part II. Regional Workshop sponsored by Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority. Washington, DC, March 6, 2007. http://www.wmata.com/metrorail/bike_workshop/.

5Project ACTION Update. Easter Seals, December 2006.

6A Motorist And Pedestrian Behavioral Analysis Relating To Pedestrian Safety Improvements. Washington State Transportation Center, 2003. http://depts.washington.edu/trac/bulkdisk/pdf/560.1.pdf.

7Moudin and Lin. Managing Pedestrian Safety I: Injury Severity. Washington Department of Transportation and Washington State Transportation Center, February 2007. http://depts.washington.edu/trac/bulkdisk/pdf/671.1.pdf.

8Lynx Customer Amenities Manual. Herbert Halback, Inc for Central Florida Regional Transportation Authority, Orlando, Florida, 2000. http://www.golynx.com/media/pdfs/lynxdocs_Amenities_Manual.pdf.

9Project for Public Spaces. New Jersey Transit Training Modules, http://www.pps.org/.

10Street Smart: Pedestrian Awareness and Operator Alertness. Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, Operations Training Course, April 2007.

11Region focuses on pedestrian safety after woman fatally struck by bus. Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority, Press release, February 18, 2007. http://www.wmata.com/about/MET_NEWS/PressReleaseDetail.cfm?ReleaseID=1547.

12Email conversation with Mae Golden. The Disability Network. Flint, Michigan. May 21, 2007.

13Surface Transportation Program. Federal Highway Administration. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/safetealu/factsheets/stp.htm.

1423 United States Code Section 133. 2005.

1549 United States Code Section 5309. 2005.

16Jefferson County Schools Receive Funding. Saferoutes, Kentucky, August 23, 2007. http://www.saferouteskentucky.com/news.asp?id=92.

17Washington DOT Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety Grant Program. http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/bike/Ped_Bike_Program.htm.

18Sidewalks & Shared Use Paths: Typical Design Issues and Problems Workshop. Chantilly, Virginia, May 11, 2007.

19Project ACTION: Toolkit for the Assessment of Bus Stop Accessibility and Safety. Easter Seals, 2006. http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit.

20Improving Pedestrian Access to Transit: An Advocacy Handbook. WalkBoston, Boston, Massachusetts, 1998. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/docs/fta.pdf.

21Improving Pedestrian Access to Transit: An Advocacy Handbook. WalkBoston, Boston, Massachusetts, 1998. http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/docs/fta.pdf.

22Bus Stop Guidelines. Tri-Met, Portland, Oregon, 2002.

23Project ACTION: Toolkit for the Assessment of Bus Stop Accessibility and Safety. Easter Seals, 2006. http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit.

24Maintaining Strong Community Ties to Flint’s Customer-Friendly Transit. Passenger Transport. January 29, 2007.

25Project ACTION: Toolkit for the Assessment of Bus Stop Accessibility and Safety. Easter Seals, 2006. http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit.

26Bicycle and Pedestrian Access to Transit: Part II. Regional Workshop sponsored by Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, March 3, 2007.

27Planning and Design for Transit Handbook. Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon, Portland, Oregon, 1996.

28SMART’s Guide for Creating a Transit Friendly Environment. Suburban Mobility Authority for Regional Transportation, Detroit, Michigan, 1996.

29Designing for Transit. Metropolitan Transit Development Board, San Diego, California, 1993.

30Transit Waiting Environments: An Ideabook for Making Better Bus Stops. Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, 2004. http://www.cudc.kent.edu/d-Service-Learning/PDFs/TWE%20screen%20short.pdf.

31Access by Design: Transit’s Role in Land Development. Mass Transit Administration, Maryland, 1988.

32Project ACTION: Toolkit for the Assessment of Bus Stop Accessibility and Safety. Easter Seals, 2006. http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit.

33Email from Linda Shaffer, Planner with Pierce Transit. May 22, 2007.

34Email from Linda Shaffer, Planner with Pierce Transit. April 15, 2007.

35ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities. United States Access Board, 2002. http://www.access-board.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm.

36Pedestrian and Transit-Friendly Design: A Primer for Smart Growth. Ewing for Smart Growth Network in Florida, 1999. http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/ptfd_primer.pdf.

37ADA Accessibility Guidelines for Buildings and Facilities. United States Access Board, 2002. Americans with Disabilities Act Accessibility Guidelines require a three-foot clear width along an accessible route with at least a five-foot by five-foot passing space every 200 feet. Sidewalks are recommended to have a five-foot minimum width so that they can be consistent for pedestrians rather than narrowing and widening every 200 feet.

38Pedestrian and Transit-Friendly Design: A Primer for Smart Growth. Ewing for the Smart Growth Network in Florida, 1999. http://www.epa.gov/smartgrowth/pdf/ptfd_primer.pdf.

39Modeling the Roadside Walking Environment: Pedestrian Level of Service. Landis, B.W., V.R. Vattikuti, R. M. Ottenberg, D.S. McLeod, M. Guttenplan, Transportation Research Record 1773, Transportation Research Board, National Academy of Sciences, 2001.

40Safety Effects of Marked versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines . C.V. Zegeer, J. Stewart, and H. Huang ,U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. , Report No. FHWA-RD-01-075, March 2002.

41Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings. Kay Fitzpatrick, et al., Transit Cooperative Research Program and National Highway Cooperative Research Program, TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562, Transportation Research Board, 2006. http://trb.org/news/blurb_detail.asp?id=6630.

42“The 2000 Uniform Vehicle Code and Model Traffic Ordinance (Uniform Vehicle Code) (Section 1-112) defines a crosswalk as:

  1. “That part of a roadway at an intersection included within the connections of the lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of the highway measured from the curbs, or in the absence of curbs, from the edges of the traversable roadway; and in the absence of a sidewalk on one side of the roadway, the part of a roadway included within the extension of the lateral lines of the existing sidewalk at right angles to the centerline.
  2. Any portion of a roadway at an intersection or elsewhere distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface.” Thus, a crosswalk at an intersection is defined as the extension of the sidewalk or the shoulder across the intersection, regardless of whether it is marked or not. The only way a crosswalk can exist at a midblock location is if it is marked. Most jurisdictions have crosswalk laws that make it legal for pedestrians to cross the street at any intersection, whether marked or not, unless the pedestrian crossing is specifically prohibited.”

Text taken from: Safety Effects of Marked versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines. C.V. Zegeer, J. Stewart, and H. Huang, US Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Report No. FHWA-RD-01-075, March 2002.

43Safety Effects of Marked versus Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines. C.V. Zegeer, J. Stewart, and H. Huang, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. , Report No. FHWA-RD-01-075, March 2002.

44Railroad-Highway Grade Crossing Handbook, Second Edition. U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, FHWA-TS-86-215, September 1986, https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/tfhrc/safety/pubs/86215/intro.htm.

45Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices. Federal Highway Administration, 2003. http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/HTM/2003r1/html-index.htm.

46American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of-Way Association, Signal Manual, http://www.arema.org.

47Code of Federal Regulations 49, Part 234: Grade Crossing Signal System Safety. Federal Railroad Administration and Department of Transportation, October 2006. http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/waisidx_06/49cfr234_06.html.

48AASHTO Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 1999.

49Bicycle and Pedestrian Access to Transit: Part II. Presentation by Paul Mayfield, Regional Workshop sponsored by Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority, March 6, 2007, Washington, DC, http://www.wmata.com/metrorail/bike_workshop/.

50Accessing Transit: Design guidelines for Florida Bus Passenger Facilities. Florida Department of Transportation and Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida. 2004.

51Project ACTION: Toolkit for the Assessment of Bus Stop Accessibility and Safety. Easter Seals, 2006. http://projectaction.easterseals.com/site/PageServer?pagename=ESPA_BusStopToolkit.

52Email from Linda Shaffer, Planner with Pierce Transit. April 16, 2007.

53ADA Accesibility Guidelines 10.2.1. www.access-board.gov/adaag/html/adaag.htm.

54Transit Standards Manual: A Reference Guide. Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky, 2006. http://www.ridetarc.org/Transit-Standards-Manual-Reference-Guide.pdf.

55Access by Design: Transit’s Role in Land Development. Mass Transit Administration, Maryland, 1988.

56Transit Waiting Environments: An Ideabook for Making Better Bus Stops. Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, 2004. http://www.cudc.kent.edu/d-Service-Learning/PDFs/TWE%20screen%20short.pdf.

57Transit Standards Manual: A Reference Guide. Transit Authority of River City, Louisville, Kentucky, 2006. http://www.ridetarc.org/Transit-Standards-Manual-Reference-Guide.pdf.

58King County Metro Adopt-A-Station. http://transit.metrokc.gov/prog/aas/adopt.html.

59Regional Transit Authority Introduces Collaborative Plan to Improve Greater Cleveland Bus Stops. The Urban Transportation Monitor. August 17, 2004.

60Transit Waiting Environments: An Ideabook for Making Better Bus Stops. Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, 2004. http://www.cudc.kent.edu/d-Service-Learning/PDFs/TWE%20screen%20short.pdf.

61http://www.ci.detroit.mi.us/ddot/transed/safety.html.

62http://www.mta.net/about_us/rail_education/videos.htm#TopOfPage.

63http://www.tarta.com/schools.htm.

64http://www.njtransit.com/rg/rg_servlet.srv?hdnPageAction=SafetyTo.

65http://www.ridetarc.org/schoolprograms.asp.

66http://www.mta.net/about_us/rail_education/statistics.htm.

67United States Pedestrian Fatality Rates by Vehicle Type. Paulozzi, L.J., Injury Prevention, Volume 11, pp. 232-236, BMJ Publishing Group Ltd., 2005. http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/cgi/content/abstract/11/4/232.

68Street Smart Campaign Annual Report and Campaign Summary. Metropolitan Washington Council of Governments. Washington DC, 2005. http://www.mwcog.org/uploads/committee-documents/vlhbX1k20061027162328.pdf.

59PEDSAFE: Pedestrian Safety Guide and Countermeasure Selection System, Federal Highway Administration. Federal Transit Administration, Transit Cooperative Research Program, Transit and Urban Form, TCRP Report 16, 1996. Chart adapted from Figure 19. Graph taken from, document, September 2004, Available Online at: http://www.walkinginfo.org/pedsafe/background.cfm.

70Transit Supportive Land Use and Planning Guidelines. Ontario Ministry of Transportation, 1992.

71Killing Speed and Saving Lives, U.K. Department of Transportation, London, 1987.

72Resource Guide on Laws Related to Pedestrian and Bicycle Safety. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. http://www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/pedbimot/bike/resourceguide/.

73Location of bus stop near busy intersection constituted dangerous condition of property for which transit authority was liable. Law Reporter. November 2001. FindArticles.com. April 20, 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3898/is_200111/ai_n9010282.

74Immunity: Government Tort Liability. Assembly Committee on Judiciary. Ellen M. Corbett, Chair. May 4, 2004, http://info.sen.ca.gov/pub/03-04/bill/asm/ab_2701-2750/ab_2737_cfa_20040503_105452_asm_comm.html.

75Agency Held Liable for Unsafe Route to Bus Stop. Maura Dolan, Los Angeles Times:
Tuesday, April 8, 2003. http://boards.eesite.com/board.cgi?boardset=ExpoLine&boardid=Politica&thread=21&spec=4858133.

76UTU Bus News Digest. November, 1999. http://www.utu.org/DEPTS/BUSFILES/BUSDIGST/1999/bsdg9911.htm.

77Buffalo, NY, Family Settles For $2.55 Mil. In Suit Charging Woman’s Death Was Due To Racism At Mall - Brief Article. Jet, December 6, 1999. FindArticles.com. 20 Apr. 2007. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1355/is_1_97/ai_58170457.

 

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