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FHWA Home / Safety / Pedestrian & Bicycle / Miami-Dade Pedestrian Safety Project: Phase II

Miami-Dade Pedestrian Safety Project: Phase II

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This chapter discusses the deployment of the countermeasures that includes an overview of each countermeasure along with any problems that needed to be addressed in the installation process. Also presented is a comparison of the countermeasures in terms of cost and device availability. A description of each individual countermeasure, its purpose, the setting for each Miami-Dade installation, and approval status, and relative cost information, are presented in Chapter 3.


Phase II involved the installation and evaluation of a broad range of pedestrian safety measures, from nearly routine signal timing changes to customized video detection equipment.

However, there were several common challenges that the Miami-Dade team faced:


Three countermeasures proved more challenging to deploy:

The first listed two devices involved procurement or deployment of electronic equipment that engineering staff and electricians were not highly familiar with. The remaining device was easily deployed but would not stay deployed due to frequent collisions with vehicles.

The manufacturer installed the Rectangular LED Rapid Flashing Beacons greatly reducing the scope for installation problems with this relatively new technology.


The overall cost of this project was slightly greater than 1 million dollars, including $870,540 in federal funding, $140,000 in state funding, and $186,771 in county funding. The federal funding averaged roughly $ 217,635 per year.

The total costs of the nearly seven-year-long project included the following rough estimates:


Design of Countermeasures: $133,933
Installation/Deployment Labor: $108,833
Materials and Equipment: $302,913
Data Collection & Evaluation: $282,172
Other Program Management $182,690
(Including planning and design of countermeasures not installed)

In general, the labor costs far exceeded the equipment and materials costs. Overall, the engineering/administrative costs were quite substantial, largely due to the need for specialized training, mobilization, and approvals for new devices. These engineering/administrative costs often exceeded the material/equipment costs and the installation labor.

The least expensive countermeasures in total per-unit costs were Pedestrian Warning Signs. The most expensive countermeasure was the Video Detection System.

If this project is replicated by a community with a strict focus on improving pedestrian safety with know treatments in a cost-effective manner, the data collection/evaluation and other program management costs could be substantially lower than the costs of the present study. Cost estimates are provided for each item in Chapter 3. Table 2.1 shows an estimate of capital costs and labor plus engineering costs for each countermeasure.

Table 2.1 Capital Cost and Labor/Engineering Costs for Each Countermeasure
COUNTERMEASURE Estimated Cost Per Unit Estimated Installation-Engineering Cost/Unit Operations/Maintenance Needs and Other Notes
Push buttons that confirm press $105 $535 Low level of maintenance required
Video Pedestrian Detection $14,250 $8,500 No information on long-term maintenance. Adjusted by manufacturer
“Turning Vehicle Yield to Pedestrians" symbol sign $25 $55 Low level of maintenance required
Electronic NRTOR sign $3000 $700 Seemed to work well. Use of this sign is increasing
Countdown Pedestrian Signals $435 $45 Easy to retrofit. Easy to maintain. We had no issues with this device
In-Street "Yield to Pedestrian Signs" $225 $50 High level of damage if not on raised island. We had no raised island locations
Pedestrian Zone Signs $25 $45 Low level of maintenance required
Speed Trailers $25/day $55 Worked well in Miami because of solar output
Rectangular LED Rapid Flashing Beacons $9,000 Included in Equipment Pricing Installed by contractor. Required some changes to battery box because of flooding. System redesigned. Handled by warranty.
Dynamic Lighting $600 Included in Equipment Pricing Was not very bright. Difficulty aiming it where needed
Eliminate Permissive Left Turn $2500 $1500 May require change in signal head
Advance Yield Markings $50 $150 Material has a long lifetime.
Offset Stop Lines $50 $150 Material has a long lifetime. No grinding needed when installed on fresh pavement.

In general, the labor and engineering costs often exceeded the materials/equipment costs. As is often the case the engineering/administrative costs for products used for the first time, tend to be higher than for equipment that are routinely installed. As staff becomes more familiar with new technology there is a major savings in time and effort. Additionally, installation cost were high because only a few devices could be installed at a time, rather than installing all devices in one operation.


All but two countermeasures were compliant with the Federal Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). It was necessary to obtain special approval to experiment with the rectangular LED rapid flashing beacon and the “Turning Vehicles Yield to Pedestrians” symbol signs. Several countermeasures considered experimental when initially proposed by the Miami-Dade team were added to the MUTCD in the 2003 revision. One other countermeasure requiring approval (in street pedestrian turning vehicle yield signs at signalized intersections) was removed after engineering studies revealed there was insufficient room to install these signs at the Miami Beach intersections originally selected for evaluation.

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Page last modified on February 1, 2013
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