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FHWA Home / Safety / Proven Safety Countermeasures / Systemic Application of Multiple Low-Cost Countermeasures at Stop-Controlled Intersections

Systemic Application of Multiple Low-Cost Countermeasures
at Stop-Controlled Intersections

This systemic approach to intersection safety involves deploying a package of multiple low-cost countermeasures, including enhanced signing and pavement markings, at a large number of stop-controlled intersections within a jurisdiction. These countermeasures increase driver awareness and recognition of the intersections and potential conflicts.

There are several benefits to systemically applying multiple low-cost countermeasures at stop-controlled intersections, including,

  • Resources are maximized because the treatments are low cost.
  • A high number of intersections can receive treatment.
  • Improvements are highly cost-effective, with an average benefit-cost ratio of 12:1, even assuming a conservative 3-year service life.1

The low-cost countermeasures for stop-controlled intersections generally consist of the following treatments:

On the Through Approach

  • Doubled-up (left and right), oversized advance intersection warning signs, with supplemental street name plaques (can also include flashing beacon).
  • Retroreflective sheeting on sign posts.
  • Enhanced pavement markings that delineate through lane edge lines.
Photo: This photograph, taken along the roadway, shows countermeasures present on the through approach of a two-way stop-controlled intersection. On both sides of the roadway, a sign assembly is present. From top to bottom, each sign assembly consists of an amber flashing beacon, a W2-1 intersection warning sign, a 45 MPH speed limit advisory plaque, and a yellow directional guidance sign, indicating the names of the cross street. Each sign assembly is supported by two metal posts covered in yellow reflective material. Additional intersection warning signs are visible in the background of the photograph.

Example of countermeasures on the through approach. Source: South Carolina DOT

On the Stop Approach

  • Doubled-up (left and right), oversized advance “Stop Ahead” intersection warning signs (can also include flashing beacon).
  • Doubled-up (left and right), oversized Stop signs.
  • Retroreflective sheeting on sign posts.
  • Properly placed stop bar.
  • Removal of vegetation, parking, or obstructions that limit sight distance.
  • Double arrow warning sign at stem of T-intersections.
Photo: This photograph, taken along the centerline of a two-lane undivided roadway, shows countermeasures present on the minor leg of a T-intersection. On both sides of the roadway, W3-1 Stop Ahead warning signs are present. Each W3-1 sign is supported by two metal posts covered in yellow reflective material.

Example of countermeasures on the stop approach. Source: South Carolina DOT

Sources

1. T. Le et al, "Safety Effects of Low-Cost Systemic Safety Improvements at Signalized and Stop-Controlled Intersections," 96th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Paper Number 17-05379, January 2017.

Safety Benefits:

10%

reduction of fatal and injury crashes at all locations/types/areas.

15%

reduction of nighttime crashes at all locations/types/areas.

27%

reduction of fatal and injury crashes at rural intersections.

19%

reduction of fatal and injury crashes at 2-lane by 2-lane intersections.

Average Cost-Benefit Ratio

12:1

 


Guidance Memos NEW

Read the Guidance Memoranda on Promoting the Implementation of Proven Safety Countermeasures.

2021 | 2017 | 2012 | 2008

Page last modified on October 28, 2021
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Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000