U.S. Department of Transportation
Federal Highway Administration
1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE
Washington, DC 20590
202-366-4000


Skip to content
FacebookYouTubeTwitterFlickrLinkedIn

Safety

eSubscribe
eSubscribe Envelope

FHWA Home / Safety / Roadway Departure / Nighttime Visibility

Nighttime Visibility

icon

Methods for Maintaining Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity

REFERENCES

  1. U.S. Department of Transportation, U.S. Department of Transportation Strategic Plan, 2006-2011. This document can be viewed at the Internet Web site: https://www.transportation.gov/mission/budget/dot-strategic-plan-fy2006-fy2011
  2. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, "Traffic Safety Facts, 2012 Motor Vehicle Crashes: Overview," November 2013. This document can be viewed at http://safety.nhtsa.dot.gov/
  3. Federal Highway Administration and The Bureau of Transportation Statistics, "2001 National Household Travel Survey." This document can be viewed at the Internet Web site: http://nhts.ornl.gov
  4. Federal Highway Administration, Roadway Departure Safety, "Nighttime Visibility" web page. Available at http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/night_visib/ (Accessed Sept 22, 2011).
  5. Federal Highway Administration, Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (Washington, D.C.: 2009).
  6. Carlson, P.J., E.S. Park, and C.K. Andersen, "The Benefits of Pavement Markings: A Renewed Perspective Based On Recent and Ongoing Research," Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2107 (2009): 56-68.
  7. Carlson, P.J., E.S. Park, and D.H. Kang, "An Investigation of Longitudinal Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity and Safety" (Paper Number 13-2512, Pending Publication in the Proceedings from the 92nd Annual Transportation Research Board Meeting, Washington, D.C., January 2013).
  8. Avelar, R.E. and P.J. Carlson, "Characterizing the Combined Association of Edge Line and Center Line Retroreflectivity to Nighttime Crashes on Michigan Rural Two-Lane Highways," Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, publication pending.
  9. Falk, K.W. and P.J. Carlson, Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Workshop Report, FHWA-SA-08-003 (Washington, D.C.: FHWA, 2008). Accessed at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/roadway_dept/night_visib/pavement_visib/fhwasa08003/fhwasa08003.pdf
  10. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Older Driver Program: Five-Year Strategic Plan 2012-2017, DO-HS-811-432 (Washington, DC: December 2010).
  11. ASTM International, ASTM D7585 / D7585M-10, Standard Practice for Evaluating Retroreflective Pavement Markings Using Portable Hand-Operated Instruments (West Conshohocken, PA: 2010). Available at: www.astm.org
  12. Deballion, C., P. Carlson, Y. He, T. Schnell, and F. Aktan. Updates to Research on Recommended Minimum Levels for Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity to Meet Driver Night Visibility Needs. FHWA-HRT-07-059 (Washington, D.C.: FHWA, 2007).
  13. ASTM International, ASTM D6359-99, Standard Specification for Minimum Retroreflectance of Newly Applied Pavement Marking Using Portable Hand-Operated Instruments, (Withdrawn).
  14. M.J. Markow. NCHRP Synthesis 408: Pavement Marking Warranty Specifications, (Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2010). Available at : http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_syn_408.pdf
  15. Pike, A., "Quantitative Versus Qualitative Pavement Marking Visibility Assessment," (paper 10-1287, presented to the 89th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., January 10-14, 2010).
  16. Carlson, P.J. and J.D. Miles, Nighttime Visibility of In-Service Pavement Markings, Pavement Markers, and Guardrail Delineation in Alaska (with and without Continuous Lighting), FHWA-AK-RD-11-04, (Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Department of Transportation, 2011).
  17. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, American National Standard Practice for Roadway Lighting, ANSI/IESNA RP-8-00 (New York: 1999).
  18. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Roadway Lighting Design Guide (Washington, D.C.: AASHTO, 2005).
  19. Texas Department of Transportation, Pavement Marking Handbook. (Austin, TX: 2004).
  20. Highway Innovation Technology Evaluation Center (HITEC), Summary of Evaluation Findings for 30-meter Handheld and Mobile Pavement Marking Retroreflectometers, Report 40525 (2001).
  21. ASTM International, ASTM E1710-11, Standard Test Method for Measurement of Retroreflective Pavement Marking Materials with CEN-Prescribed Geometry Using a Portable Retroreflectometer (West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM, 2011). Available at: www.astm.org.
  22. Migletz, J., J. L. Graham, D.W. Harwood, and K.M. Bauer, "Service Life of Durable Pavement Markings," Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 1749 (2001).
  23. Sathyanarayanan, S., V. Shankar, and E. T. Donnell, "A Weibull Analysis of Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Inspection Data," Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, publication pending.
  24. Migletz, J. and J. Graham, NCHRP Synthesis 306: Long-Term Pavement Marking Practices, (Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board, 2002).
  25. Federal Highway Administration, "Report on Economic Impact of Implementing Minimum Pavement Marking Retroreflectivity Rule-Making." Posted in the SNPA Docket Comment
< Previous Table of Contents  
Page last modified on February 1, 2017
Safe Roads for a Safer Future - Investment in roadway safety saves lives
Federal Highway Administration | 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE | Washington, DC 20590 | 202-366-4000