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HSIP 2016 National Summary Report

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Technical Documentation Page

1. Report No.
FHWA-SA-17-040
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
HSIP 2016 National Summary Report
5. Report Date
May 2017
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Sarah Smith
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
University of North Carolina Highway Safety Research Center 730 ML King Jr Blvd, CB #3430 Chapel Hill, NC  27599
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-11-C-00050
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety 1200 New Jersey Ave, SE Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Summary Report 2016
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
FHWA
15. Supplementary Notes
16. Abstract
The HSIP 2016 National Summary Report compiles and summarizes aggregate information related to the States' progress in implementing HSIP projects. Progress in implementing HSIP projects is described based on the amount of HSIP funds available and the number and general listing of projects obligated during the 2016 reporting cycle. The HSIP 2016 National Summary Report is not intended to compare states; rather to illustrate how the states are collectively implementing the HSIP to reduce fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads across the nation. The HSIP 2016 National Summary Report also presents a national benefit cost ratio for the HSIP.
17. Key Words:
Highway Safety Improvement Program, reporting guidance, improvement category, Strategic Highway Safety Plan, emphasis area, national summary
18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. 
19. Security Classif. (of this report)
Unclassified
20. Security Classif. (of this page)
Unclassified
21. No. of Pages
  32
22. Price
N/A

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72)               Reproduction of form and completed page is authorized

Table of Contents

Executive Summary
Background
HSIP Funding Approach
Data-Driven Safety Decision Making.
State Safety Programs Administered Under HSIP.
Methodology Types for Selected Programs Administered Under HSIP.
HSIP Projects Overview
Project Cost
Functional Class and Ownership
Improvement Categories and Subcategories.
SHSP Emphasis Areas
2013-2016 Comparison
Comparison to Previous Years.
Benefit-Cost Analysis of the HSIP.
Summary
References
Appendix A: Full Description of HSIP Improvement Categories and Sub Categories for 2013 HSIP Reporting Guidance
Appendix B. Detailed Tables of Project Costs Summaries.

List of Tables

Table 1. Total number of projects and project cost breakdown, 2013-2016
Table 2. Number of projects and average total project cost for various project types, 2013-2016.
Table 3: Total Number and Cost of Projects by Year.
Table 4. Weighted BC Ratio for Segment and Intersection Based Projects (weight based on total project cost)
Table 5: Number and Cost of 2016 Projects by Improvement Category.
Table 6: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Geometry.
Table 7: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Traffic Control
Table 8: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Pedestrians and Bicyclists.
Table 9: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Roadway.
Table 10: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Roadside.

List of Figures

Figure 1: FAST Act Annual Program Apportionments.
Figure 2: Number of State Safety Programs (top 9)
Figure 3: Number of State Safety Programs (bottom 9)
Figure 4: Count of PIM selected for programs administered under HSIP.
Figure 5: Number of Projects by Project Cost.
Figure 6. Number of Projects by Functional Class.
Figure 7. Average Total Cost of Projects by Functional Class.
Figure 8. Number and Average Total Cost of Projects by Urban/Rural Designation.
Figure 9. Number of Projects by Road Ownership.
Figure 10. Average Total Cost of Projects by Road Ownership.
Figure 11. Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Top 11)
Figure 12. Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Bottom 11)
Figure 13. Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (top 11)
Figure 14. Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (bottom 11)
Figure 15: Number of Intersection Geometry Projects by Subcategory.
Figure 16: Number of Traffic Control Projects by Subcategory. 15
Figure 17: Number of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Projects by Subcategory.
Figure 18: Number of Roadway Projects by Subcategory.
Figure 19: Number of Roadside Projects by Subcategory.
Figure 20: Number of Projects by SHSP Emphasis Area.

Executive Summary

The Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) is a core Federal-aid highway program with the purpose to achieve a significant reduction in fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads. Under the Fixing America's Transportation System (FAST) Act, Congress authorized up to $2.4 billion per year for States to achieve this goal through the implementation of highway safety improvement projects. The States not only met this challenge, but far exceeded it obligating nearly $4 billion for over 4,400 highway safety improvement projects in 2016.

These highway safety improvement projects come in all shapes and sizes. Some HSIP projects are much bigger in scope than others, while other projects include countermeasure installations across multiple sites. The 2016 HSIP National Summary Report provides an aggregate summary of the type and cost of projects across all States. Provided below are highlights of the States' 2016 HSIP implementation efforts.

While the spending patterns don't change much form year to year, the number and cost of HSIP projects has continued to increase. There were 1,684 projects with a total cost of $1.61B in 2009 compared to 4,468 projects with a total cost of $4.03B in 2016. Over the past eight years, States obligated $20.6 billion for more than 24,000 highway safety improvement projects. Based on a sample of 2016 HSIP projects, FHWA estimates that the benefits of the HSIP outweigh the costs on a scale ranging from 4.4 to 6.5.

Background

The Highway Safety Improvement Program (HSIP) is a core Federal-aid highway program with the purpose to achieve a significant reduction in traffic fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads through the implementation of highway safety improvement projects. The HSIP, similar to other Federal-aid highway programs, is a federally-funded, state administered program. The FHWA establishes the HSIP requirements via 23 CFR Part 924, and the States develop and administer a program to best meet their needs.

The HSIP requires a data-driven, strategic approach to improving highway safety on all public roads that focuses on performance[1].  To obligate HSIP funds, each State shall:

States are also required to submit a report that describes the progress being made to implement highway safety improvement projects and the effectiveness of those improvements. [23 U.S.C. 148(h)] States prepared the 2016 reports using the HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance, dated February 13, 2013. The HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance outlines the content and schedule for the annual HSIP report. The HSIP report should include, at a minimum, a discussion of each State's:

The HSIP 2016 National Summary Report compiles and summarizes aggregate information related to the States progress in implementing HSIP projects during the 2016 reporting cycle. Progress in implementing HSIP projects is described based on the amount of HSIP funds available and the number and general listing of projects obligated as documented in the 2016 HSIP reports. The HSIP 2016 National Summary Report is not intended to compare states; rather to illustrate how the states are collectively implementing the HSIP to reduce fatalities and serious injuries on all public roads across the nation. The HSIP 2016 National Summary Report also presents a national benefit cost ratio for the HSIP.

A summary of available funding and the number and general listing of projects from prior years is available in the HSIP National Summary Baseline Report: 2009-2012, HSIP 2013 National Summary Report, HSIP 2014 National Summary Report, and HSIP 2015 National Summary Report.

HSIP Funding Approach

The FAST Act authorizes a single amount for each year for all the apportioned highway programs combined. That amount is apportioned among the States, and then each State's apportionment is divided among the individual apportioned programs.

The FAST Act (Section 1101) authorizes a total combined amount ($39.7 billion in FY 2016, $40.5 billion in FY 2017, $41.4 billion in FY 2018, $42.4 billion in FY 2019, and $43.4 billion in FY 2020) in contract authority to fund six formula programs (including certain set-asides within the programs described below):

Figure 1 illustrates the distribution of funds across programs under the FAST Act.

Figure 1 illustrates the distribution of funds across programs under the FAST Act. HSIP apportionments are $2.5 billion, Surface Transportation Block Grant Program apportionments are $11.4 billion, CMAQ apportionments are $2.4 billion, National Freight apportionments are $1.1 billion, Metro Planning apportionments are $0.3 billion, and National Highway Performance Program apportionments are $22.8 billion.
Figure 1: FAST Act Annual Program Apportionments

HSIP receives 7% of the States apportionment remaining after allocations to NHFP, CMAQ and Metropolitan Planning, which amounts to approximately $2.5 billion each year. The following sums are set-aside from the State's HSIP apportionment:

In addition, if the High Risk Rural Roads Special rule applies to a State, then in the next fiscal year the State must obligate an amount at least equal to 200% of its FY 2009 HRRR set-aside for high risk rural roads. [23 U.S.C. 148(g)] Further, States that are subject to the 23 U.S.C. 154 and 164 penalties may also receive additional funding for HSIP projects.

HSIP funds, as defined for the remainder of this report, includes HSIP, HRRR and penalty transfer funds that are available to States for the advancement of highway safety improvement projects.

Data-Driven Safety Decision Making

Beginning in 2016, the HSIP National Summary Report includes an evaluation of how states are using data-driven safety decision making to support their HSIP. This includes the States safety program administered under the HSIP and the methodologies states use to identify projects in each of these programs, as well as the amount of funds used for systemic improvements. On average, States obligated 38 percent of HSIP funds to address systemic improvements. The following sections and figures present information on State's safety programs and problem identification methodologies.

State Safety Programs Administered Under HSIP

States provide a brief overview of each program administered under the HSIP as part of their annual HSIP report. The HSIP Manual[3] defines a program as a group of projects (not necessarily similar in type or location) implemented to achieve a common highway safety goal. For example, some States have one program that includes all projects resulting from the HSIP planning component. Other States have multiple "sub" programs. An example of a "sub" program may be a skid treatment program designed to reduce wet-weather-related crashes at different locations. Some States also refer to "sub" programs as initiatives.

Figure 2 and Figure 3 present the number of State safety programs for the 2016 reporting period. Most states have "Intersection" (30 States) and "Roadway Departure" (29 States) programs. Twenty-nine states selected 49 programs in the "Other" category. Examples of programs in the "Other" category are: "pavement marking improvements", "longitudinal rumble strips", and "vulnerable road users".

Figure 2 illustrates the number of State safety programs (top 9). The top 9 state safety programs are intersection, roadway departure, local safety, median barrier, horizontal curve, pedestrian safety, crash data, low-cost spot improvements, and skid hazard.
Figure 2: Number of State Safety Programs (top 9)

Figure 3 illustrates the number of State safety programs (bottom 9). The bottom 9 state safety programs are sign replacement and improvement, bicycle safety, segments, rural state highways, shoulder improvements, right angle crash, left turn crash, safe corridor, and red light running prevention.
Figure 3: Number of State Safety Programs (bottom 9)

Methodology Types for Selected Programs Administered Under HSIP

For each State safety program administered under the HSIP, a State can also indicate what project identification methodology (PIM) was used for each program, consistent with the 13 PIMs or performance measures defined in the Highway Safety Manual[4]. Figure 4 presents the number of times a particular PIM was selected by the States. Please note that a State can select more than one PIM for each safety program. "Crash frequency" was selected 228 times while "Excess expected crash frequency using methods of moments" was only selected 2 times. Examples of methodologies in the "Other" category are: "Collaboration with county engineers" and "Hierarchical Bayesian Model".

Figure 4 illustrates the count of PIM selected for programs administered under HSIP. The order of PIMS (from highest to lowest) is crash frequency, crash rate, relative severity index, excess proportions of specific crash types, probability of specific crash types, critical rate, equivalent property damage only (EPDO) crash frequency, expected crash frequency with EB adjusted, excess expected crash frequency with the EB adjustment, excess expected crash frequency using SPFs, level of service of safety, EPDO crash frequency with EB adjustment, and excess expected crash frequency using method of moments.
Figure 4: Count of PIM selected for programs administered under HSIP

HSIP Projects Overview

States provide project specific information for all projects obligated with HSIP funds during the reporting period in their annual HSIP reports. The reporting period is defined by the State and can be calendar year, state fiscal year or federal fiscal year. For 2016, the States obligated $4.03B for 4,468 total projects. On average, States obligated 38 percent of HSIP funds to address systemic improvements. These obligations utilized funds apportioned during the 2016 fiscal year as well as HSIP funds available from previous years' apportionments.

As per the HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance, project specific information may include:

The following sections present various summaries of the nationwide HSIP project obligations for the 2016 reporting cycle. It should be noted that limited analysis of the project information can be done because not all states have included all of the above information for each project in their annual HSIP reports. Full use of the HSIP online reporting tool and the most recent HSIP reporting guidance will enable more complete and accurate reporting of national HSIP project data. In addition, HSIP projects come in all shapes and sizes. For example, some HSIP projects may be much bigger in scope than others, countermeasure installations across multiple sites, or non-infrastructure projects (i.e. transportation safety planning, data improvements). Nonetheless, the summaries in the following sections provide a broad scale analysis of HSIP spending in 2016 by project cost, functional classification and ownership, improvement categories and subcategories, and SHSP emphasis areas.

Project Cost

The cost per HSIP project in 2016 ranged widely. Some projects were small in scope and cost, such as replacing signs on a particular route. Others were higher cost projects, such as widening a highway or reconfiguring an intersection. Figure 5 shows the breakdown by project cost, grouped into general categories with breakpoints at $100,000, $500,000, and $1,000,000.

Figure 5 illustrates the number of projects by project cost. 1106 projects were less than $100,000, 1246 projects were between $100,000 and $499,999, 478 projects were between $500,000 and $1,000,000, and 896 projects were greater than $1,000,000.
Figure 5: Number of Projects by Project Cost

Roughly 63 percent of the projects had costs less than $500K. A small percentage (13 percent) fell into the $500K – $1M category. The remaining 24 percent were high cost projects totaling $1M or more. The top five sub categories selected for these high cost projects are:

In 2013, 2014, and 2015, the breakdowns were similar. About two-thirds of the projects had costs less than $500K, about 11 to 13 percent fell into the $500K – $1M category, and the remaining 20 percent were more than $1M.

Functional Class and Ownership

Figure 6 through Figure 10 illustrate the distribution of projects by the types of roads on which they were conducted. Figure 6 shows number of projects by functional class, following the HPMS classification scheme; Figure 7 shows average total cost of projects by functional class; Figure 8 shows the number and average total cost of projects by urban/rural designation; Figure 9 shows projects by the agency who owns the road; and Figure 10 shows average total cost of projects by the agency who owns the road. If the functional class or road ownership was not indicated, the project is counted under the "unknown" category. Examples of classifications in the "other" category include multiple functional classes, state or citywide implementation, or non-infrastructure projects.

Figure 6 illustrates the number of projects by functional class separately for rural and urban area types.
Figure 6: Number of Projects by Functional Class

Unlike 2014 and 2015, most projects were categorized as "Other" indicating that the State classified the project as multiple functional classes, state or citywide implementation, or non-infrastructure projects (810 projects). As in 2015, projects that were associated with a functional class were most often categorized as "Rural Major Collector" or "Urban Principal Arterial – Other". There were 698 projects categorized as "Unknown" indicating the State did not assign a functional classification to the project.

Figure 7 illustrates the average total cost of projects by functional class separately for rural and urban area types.
Figure 7: Average Total Cost of Projects by Functional Class

Figure 7 shows the average total cost of projects by functional class. It is important to note that not every project had an associated cost so the average is based on the number of projects which had cost information available (including de-obligated costs). Projects categorized as "Rural Principal Arterial – Freeways and Expressways" had the highest average total cost per project of $2.4 million (compared to $2.7M in 2015) and projects categorized as "Rural Local Road or Street" had the lowest average total cost per project of $475,000 (compared to $329,000 in 2015).

Figure 8 illustrates the number and average total cost of projects by urban or rural designation. 1277 urban projects had an average total cost of $1,518,629. 1683 rural projects had an average total cost of $881,348. 698 projects were classified as unknown and had an average total cost of $725,989. 810 projects were classified as other and had an average total cost of $788,027.
Figure 8: Number and Average Total Cost of Projects by Urban/Rural Designation

Figure 8 illustrates the number and average total cost of projects by urban/rural designation. As in 2014 and 2015, there are fewer total urban projects than rural projects but the average total cost of the urban projects is greater than the average total cost of the rural projects.

Figure 9 illustrates the number of projects by road ownership. 3085 were classified as state highway agency, 401 were classified as county highway agency, 307 were classified as city or municipal highway agency, 181 were classified as other local agency, 23 were classified as railroad, 18 were classified as town or township highway agency, 3 were classified as private (other than railroad), 2 were classified as Indian tribe or nation, 2 were classified as other state agency, 1 was classified as state park, forest, or reservation agency, 166 were classified as unknown, and 279 were classified as other.
Figure 9: Number of Projects by Road Ownership

As in 2014 and 2015, States implement most projects on roads owned by a "State Highway Agency". There were 166 projects categorized as "Unknown" (indicating that the State did not indicate road ownership for a particular project). There were 279 projects categorized as "Other" and of those, roughly 70 were categorized in state-defined ownership categories. No projects were categorized for the following ownerships:

Figure 10 illustrates the average total cost of projects by road ownership. City or municipal highway agency was $1.6 million, town or township highway agency was $1.2 million, state highway agency was $1.1 million, other local agency was $693 thousand, Indian tribe or nation was $426 thousand, county highway agency was $424 thousand, railroad was $365 thousand, other state agency was $300 thousand, private (other than railroad) was $47 thousand, state park, forest, or reservation agency was $32 thousand, unknown was $1.1 million, and other was $415 thousand.
Figure 10: Average Total Cost of Projects by Road Ownership

Figure 10 shows the average total cost of projects by road ownership. It is important to note that not every project had an associated cost so the average is based on the number of projects which had cost information available (including deobligated costs). Projects categorized as "City or Municipal Highway Agency" had the highest average total cost per project of $1.6 million and projects categorized as "State Park, Forest, or Reservation Agency" had the lowest average total cost per project of $32,000.

Improvement Categories and Subcategories

Under the HSIP MAP-21 reporting guidance, each project should be assigned a general improvement category and a subcategory under that general category. While a single project may consist of multiple project types, FHWA suggests States to assign each project to only one category. The category chosen should align with the primary purpose of the project. Figure 11 and Figure 12 show the distribution of the number of projects by general improvement category. Figure 13 and Figure 14 combined show the distribution of the total cost of projects by general improvement category. Projects categorized as "Unknown" indicate that there was no general improvement category assigned by the State. Figure 15 through Figure 19 show the breakdown of the number of projects by subcategory for five improvement categories: Intersection geometry, Intersection traffic control, Pedestrians and bicyclists, Roadway, and Roadside. More detailed tables with the cost spent in each subcategory are available in Appendix B. For ease of reporting, similar subcategories were grouped together. For example, in Figure 15 below, "Auxiliary lanes – other" combines adding acceleration lanes, adding auxiliary through lanes, adding two way left turn lanes, and several other related subcategories.

Figure 11 illustrates the number of projects by improvement category (top 11). 1244 projects are roadway, 608 projects are intersection traffic control, 458 projects are intersection geometry, 444 projects are roadside, 261 projects are roadway signs and traffic control, 246 projects are roadway delineation, 220 projects are shoulder treatments, 205 projects are non-infrastructure, 180 projects are pedestrians and bicyclists, 194 projects are unknown, and 61 projects are other.
Figure 11: Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Top 11)

Figure 11 shows the number of projects by improvement category (top 11) as classified in the HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance. Based on the project information reported by the States, the top five improvement categories are roadway, intersection traffic control, intersection geometry, roadside, and roadway signs and traffic control. In 2015, the top five improvement categories were the same with the exception of roadway signs and traffic control (shoulder treatments was the fifth most classified improvement category in 2015). The number of projects classified in each category and the ranking of project categories were similar, also, compared to 2015.

Figure 12 illustrates the number of projects by improvement category (bottom 11). 74 projects are access management, 64 projects are lighting, 57 projects are alignment, 50 projects are railroad grade crossings, 43 projects are interchange design, 23 projects are advanced technology and ITS, 15 projects are multiple categories, 13 projects are work zone, 6 projects are speed management, 1 project is animal-related, and 1 project is parking.
Figure 12: Number of Projects by Improvement Category (Bottom 11)

Figure 12 shows the number of projects by improvement category (bottom 11) as classified in the HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance. In 2015, the number and ranking of projects classified in each category for the bottom 11 were similar with the exception of railroad grade crossings. In 2016, 50 projects were classified as railroad grade crossings compared to 18 projects in 2015.

Figure 13 illustrates the average total cost of projects by improvement category (top 11). Advanced technology and ITS was $7 million, shoulder treatments was $2.6 million, alignment was $2.5 million, animal-related was $1.6 million, speed management was $1.4 million, multiple was $1.3 million, interchange design was $1.2 million, roadside was $1.2 million, intersection geometry was $1.1 million, and roadway was $927 thousand.
Figure 13: Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (top 11)

Figure 13 shows the average total cost of projects by improvement category (top 11). Again, it is important to note that not every project had an associated cost so the average is based on the number of projects with cost available (including deobligated costs). Compared to 2015, the following categories had notable differences in average project costs. Note that the "Multiple" category indicates that a State selected more than one improvement category. For example, the project could include changes to intersection geometry, traffic control, pedestrian access, signs, or pavement markings).

Figure 14 illustrates the average total cost of projects by improvement category (bottom 11). Lighting was $876 thousand, pedestrians and bicyclists were $866 thousand, intersection traffic control was $691 thousand, railroad grade crossings was $574 thousand, work zone was $513 thousand, non-infrastructure was $463 thousand, roadway signs and traffic control was $295 thousand, parking was $245 thousand, other was $1.2 million, and unknown was $768 thousand.
Figure 14: Average Total Cost of Projects by Improvement Category (bottom 11)

Based on project information reported by the States, the lowest average HSIP cost projects are in the following categories:

Figure 15 illustrates the number of intersection geometry projects by subcategory. 204 projects were intersection geometrics - other/unknown, 18 projects were intersection geometrics - modify skew angle, 14 projects were intersection geometrics - realignment to improve offset, 32 projects were auxiliary lanes - add right turn lane, 141 projects were auxiliary lanes - add left-turn lane, and 49 projects were auxiliary lanes - other.
Figure 15: Number of Intersection Geometry Projects by Subcategory

The Intersection geometry category was selected for further evaluation because in 2016 (as in previous years) it ranked in the top five in terms of number of projects categorized and ranked in the top 11 in terms of average cost per project. FHWA has also identified intersections as one of three focus areas for the Focused Approach to Safety effort.

For the Intersection geometry category, most projects are sub categorized as "Intersection geometrics – other/unknown" (45 percent; 204 of 458 projects), "Auxiliary lanes – add left-turn lane" (31 percent; 141 of 458 projects), and "Auxiliary lanes – other" (11 percent; 49 of 458 projects). Examples of projects in the "Intersection geometrics – other/unknown" subcategory include modify intersection corner radius and general intersection safety improvement projects. The "Intersection geometrics – other/unknown" subcategory is predominately used without any project description, therefore, no other information is available for these projects.

Figure 16 illustrates the number of traffic control projects by subcategory. 198 projects were modify traffic signal, 37 projects were modify traffic signal timing or phasing, 9 projects were pavement markings, 84 projects were intersection flashers and signing, 190 projects were intersection traffic control - other/unknown, and 90 projects were modify control to roundabout.
Figure 16: Number of Traffic Control Projects by Subcategory

The Intersection traffic control category was selected for further evaluation because in 2016 (as in previous years) it ranked in the top five in terms of number of projects categorized. FHWA has also identified intersections as one of three focus areas for the Focused Approach to Safety effort.

For the Intersection traffic control category, most projects are subcategorized as "Modify traffic signal" (33 percent; 198 of 608 projects) and "Intersection traffic control – other/unknown" (31 percent; 190 of 608 projects). Examples of projects in the "Intersection traffic control – other/unknown" category include projects described as signal and stop controlled systemic improvements and general intersection traffic control improvement projects. The "Intersection traffic control – other/unknown" subcategory is predominately used without any project description, therefore, no other information is available for these projects. Examples of projects in the "Modify traffic signal" category include modernization/replacement of traffic signal and adding flashing yellow arrow signals.

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Figure 17 illustrates the number of pedestrian and bicyclist projects by subcategory. 71 projects were miscellaneous pedestrian and bicyclist improvements, 53 projects were install or modify pedestrian signal, 26 projects were install or modify crosswalk, and 30 projects were install sidewalk.
Figure 17: Number of Pedestrian and Bicyclist Projects by Subcategory

The Pedestrian and bicycle category was selected for further evaluation because infrastructure improvements in this category are of significant interest to various stakeholders. FHWA has also identified pedestrians and bicyclists as one of three focus areas under the Focused Approach to Safety effort.

For the Pedestrians and bicyclists category, most projects are subcategorized as "Miscellaneous pedestrian and bicyclist improvements" (39 percent; 71 of 180 projects) and "Install or modify pedestrian signal" (29 percent; 53 of 180 projects). Many of the projects in the "Miscellaneous pedestrian and bicyclist improvements" subcategory do not have any project description, therefore, no other information is available for these projects.

Figure 18 illustrates the number of roadway projects by subcategory. 704 projects were roadway - other/unknown, 100 projects were pavement surface, 59 projects were roadway widening, 23 projects were superelevation/cross slope, 23 projects were roadway narrowing, and 335 projects were rumble strips.
Figure 18: Number of Roadway Projects by Subcategory

The Roadway category was selected for further evaluation because in 2016 (as in previous years) it ranked as the number one category in terms of number of projects categorized. FHWA has also identified roadway departure as one of three focus areas for the Focused Approach to Safety effort.

For the Roadway category, most projects were subcategorized as "Roadway – other/unknown" (57 percent; 704 of 1244 projects) and "Rumble strips" (27 percent; 335 of 1244 projects). Examples of projects in the "Roadway – other/unknown" subcategory were projects such as "restripe to revise separation between opposing lanes and/or shoulder widths".

Figure 19 illustrates the number of roadside projects by subcategory. 282 projects were barrier, 11 projects were removal of roadside object, 18 projects were roadside grading, 59 projects were barrier end treatments, 73 projects were roadside - other/unknown, and 1 project was curb and drainage improvements.
Figure 19 : Number of Roadside Projects by Subcategory

The Roadside category was selected for further evaluation because in 2016 (as in previous years) it ranked in the top five in terms of number of projects categorized and is of national interest lately. For the Roadside category, most projects were subcategorized as "Barrier" (64 percent; 282 of 444 projects), "Roadside – other/unknown" (16 percent; 73 of 444 projects), and "Barrier end treatments" (13 percent; 59 of 444 projects). Examples of two projects in the "Roadside – other/unknown" subcategory were "Barrier – removal" and "Fencing".

SHSP Emphasis Areas

Based on a review of State SHSPs, FHWA identified the eight SHSP emphasis areas common across most States. These emphasis areas are used in the HSIP online reporting tool for categorizing HSIP projects.   Figure 20 presents the number of HSIP projects categorized by SHSP emphasis area. For consistency and national reporting purposes, state-defined SHSP emphasis areas were assigned to these emphasis areas, where possible. 

About 40 percent of the projects were categorized as "Roadway Departure" (33 percent in 2014 and 42 percent in 2015), 29 percent were categorized as "Intersections" (27 percent in 2014 and 31 percent in 2015), 13 percent categorized as "Unknown/Other" (26 percent in 2014 and 14 percent in 2015). Examples of other categories used by the States include: "Highway infrastructure", "Railroad", and "Lighting".

Figure 20 illustrates the number of projects by SHSP emphasis area. 1805 projects were roadway departure, 1280 projects were intersections, 376 projects were lane departure, 189 projects were pedestrians, 99 projects were data, 21 projects were older drivers, 16 projects were bicyclists, 15 projects were work zones, and 667 projects were other/unknown.
Figure 20: Number of Projects by SHSP Emphasis Area

2013-2016 Comparison

Most states prepared their 2013 through 2016 HSIP reports in accordance with the MAP-21 HSIP Reporting Guidance; therefore FHWA can make a direct comparison of information related to the 2013 through 2016 highway safety improvement projects. As can be seen in Table 3 below, the total number of projects and cost of projects did not change much from 2013 to 2014 but between 2015 and 2016, there were roughly 1000 more projects reported. However, the breakdown in project costs for various breakpoints was similar across years.

Table 1. Total number of projects and project cost breakdown, 2013-2016

Year 2013 Percentage 2014 Percentage 2015 Percentage 2016 Percentage
Number of projects 3292   3348   4188   4468  
Num. of projects (with cost info.)* 3171   3272   3830   3726  
Cost of projects** $3.09B   $3.10B   $3.90B   $4.03B  
Average cost per project $981K   $952K   $1.02M   $1.08M  
 
Number of projects <$100K 1154 35% 1011 30% 1374 33% 1106 25%
Number of projects $100K – $499K 985 30% 1054 31% 1131 27% 1246 28%
Number of projects $500K-$1M 401 12% 450 13% 445 11% 478 11%
Number of projects $1M+ 631 19% 757 23% 880 21% 896 20%
Number of projects with deobligated funds 60 2% 28 1% 146 3% 256 6%
Number of projects with $0 or blank 61 2% 48 1% 212 5% 486 11%

*Number of projects with cost info does not include projects with deobligated funds or where the value entered was $0 or null. **Cost of projects is the sum of total cost for each year (including deobligated funds). Table 2 shows the comparison from 2013 through 2016 of the number of projects and average total cost (does not include deobligated funds or where the value entered was $0 or null) of projects for various project types highlighted in this report. For most project types, the number and cost of projects has increased over the four year period.

Table 2. Number of projects and average total project cost for various project types, 2013-2016

Project Type Num Projects 2013 Avg Cost  2013 Num Projects 2014 Avg Cost  2014 Num Projects 2015 Avg Cost 2015 Num Projects 2016 Avg Cost 2016
Urban projects 826 $1.4M 954 $1.3M 1236 $1.2M 1277 $1.7M
Rural projects 1244 $930K 1361 $890K 1847 $1.1M 1683 $956K
 
Roadway projects 854 $639K 722 $955K 1195 $671K 1244 $1.1M
Intersection traffic control projects 420 $682K 505 $702K 615 $798K 608 $704K
Intersection geometry projects 376 $1.3M 379 $983K 559 $1.0M 458 $1.1M
Ped/bike projects 103 $534K 118 $507K 122 $965K 180 $866K
Roadside projects 225 $951K 303 $810K 422 $893K 444 $1.2M

Comparison to Previous Years

The HSIP National Summary Baseline Report 2009-2012 reported project and cost information for HSIP reports submitted by the States for years 2009-2012. The information from the baseline report is summarized below with the purpose of comparing basic cost and project information to the 2013 through 2015 reports. Table 3 below shows that States obligated $16.6B for more than 19,000 projects over the seven-year period. These obligations include not only HSIP funds apportioned during the reporting period (2009-2015), but also HSIP funds available from previous years' apportionments.

Table 3: Total Number and Cost of Projects by Year

Year 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Total
Num Projects 1,684 2,386 2,523 2,429 3,292 3,348 4,188 4,468 24,318
Num Projects (with cost info.)* 1,568 2,320 2,397 2,311 3,171 3,272 3,830 3,726 22,595
Cost of projects $1.61B $1.46B $1.78B $1.65B $3.09B $3.10B $3.90B $4.03B $20.6B
Avg. Cost Per Project $1.0M $629K $743K $722K $981K $952K $1.0M $1.1M $916K
*Number of projects with cost info does not include projects with deobligated funds or where the value entered was $0 or null.
**Cost of projects is the sum of total cost for each year (including deobligated funds).

Benefit-Cost Analysis of the HSIP

FHWA also conducted a national evaluation of the HSIP to estimate expected program results using the project information from the 2016 HSIP reports. The purpose of the evaluation was to estimate a national benefit cost ratio for the HSIP. The HSIP national benefit cost ratio provides an indication of the programs national impact and the benefits the public can expect from investments in the HSIP.

The evaluation methodology makes use of the full project listing information from 50 States plus the District of Columbia (2016 HSIP Database) and associated crash modification factors (CMFs) from the CMF Clearinghouse, the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), the Highway Performance Monitoring System (HPMS), the Highway Safety Information System (HSIS), FHWA, and various reports. The following steps indicate how to apply the selected methodology for projects in the 2016 HSIP Database with complete data:

  1. Calculate the estimated crash reduction for each project group
    1. Estimate a "before" crash rate using data from FARS, HPMS, and HSIS.
    2. Identify appropriate CMFs from the CMF Clearinghouse.
  2. Calculate the monetary benefit for each project category by converting crash savings to dollar amounts.
    1. Update crash severity costs (K, KA, KABC, ABC, KABCO) to 2015 dollars using information from Council et al[5] and an internal FHWA memo[6].
  3. Divide annual monetary benefit by the annualized project cost to calculate the benefit-cost ratio.
    1. Assume a service life per treatment type using information from the Service Life and Crash Cost User Guide available on the CMF Clearinghouse.
  4. Calculate a program wide benefit-cost ratio by averaging the ratios from all project groups.
    1. Weight the average based on HSIP funds spent for a project to account for project groups which were more prevalent in the data.

For this reporting cycle, it was possible to calculate the expected project level benefit cost ratios for 1,077 segment and intersection based projects, which is approximately 24 percent of the projects listed in the 2016 HSIP Database. Table 4 presents the weighted results (based on amount of HSIP funds that were spent for that project). Many projects had a range of years for the assumed service life, so the table presents the BC ratio according to the minimum and maximum service lives.

The values in Table 4 (4.355 to 6.511) represent the range of BC ratios for the HSIP program for segment and intersection based improvement projects, depending on the minimum or maximum service life of the treatment and discount rate. Comparatively, the range for the 2015 HSIP project listing was 4.523 to 7.123.

Table 4. Weighted BC Ratio for Segment and Intersection Based Projects (weight based on total project cost)

  Weighted BC Ratio (min Service Life, 3% discount rate) Weighted BC Ratio (max Service Life, 3% discount rate) Weighted BC Ratio (min Service Life, 7% discount rate) Weighted BC Ratio (max Service Life, 7% discount rate)
1,042 Segment Based HSIP Projects (weighted on segment project cost)
35 Intersection Based HSIP Projects (weighted on intersection project cost)
1,077 Segment & Intersection Based HSIP Projects (weighted on segment & intersection  project cost)
5.257 6.482 4.366 5.089
9.601 11.021 7.381 8.181
5.284 6.511 4.355 5.109

Many projects could not be included in analysis because they were either missing key data elements (e.g., number of miles or intersections treated, CMF, project cost, etc.) or were non-infrastructure projects. The calculated benefit-cost ratio for each of the 1,077 projects relied heavily on assumptions for each project regarding the applicable CMF, service life, crash rate, and injury severity cost.

Summary

The HSIP is a strategic program that uses data and analysis to target safety resources.   This HSIP 2016 National Summary Report shows that in 2016, States directed HSIP funds to address the predominant infrastructure-related crash types: roadway departure, intersection and pedestrian crashes, similar to previous years. On average, States obligated 38 percent of HSIP funds to address systemic improvements. While the basic characteristics (rural and urban, improvement categories, and SHSP emphasis areas) of HSIP spending remains fairly consistent from year to year, the number and cost of HSIP projects has continued to increase over the seven-year period from 1,684 projects with a total cost of $1.61B in 2009 to 4,468 projects with a total cost of $4.03B in 2016. Based on a sample of 2016 HSIP projects, FHWA estimates that the benefits of the HSIP outweigh the costs on a scale ranging from 4.4 to 6.5.

References

FHWA, MAP-21 Apportionment Fact Sheet
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/map21/factsheets/apportionment.cfm

FHWA, HSIP Apportionment Notices
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/legsregs/directives/notices/

FHWA, HSIP MAP-21 Fact Sheet
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/map21/factsheets/hsip.cfm

FHWA, HSIP MAP-21 Reporting Guidance, February 13, 2013
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/map21/guidance/guidehsipreport.cfm

FHWA, HSIP Online Reporting Tool
https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov//hsip/resources/onrpttool/

FHWA, HSIP National Summary Baseline Report 2009-2012
https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/reports/nsbrpt_2009_2012.cfm

FHWA, HSIP 2013 National Summary Report
/hsip/reports/nsbrpt2013.cfm

FHWA, HSIP 2014 National Summary Report
https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov//hsip/reports/pdf/2014/hsip_natl2014.pdf

FHWA, HSIP 2015 National Summary Report
https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov//hsip/reports/pdf/2015/hsip_natl2015.pdf

2016 State HSIP Reports
https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov//hsip/reports/

Appendix A: Full Description of HSIP Improvement Categories and Sub Categories for 2013 HSIP Reporting Guidance

Category Sub-category
Access management Access management – other
Change in access – close or restrict existing access
Change in access – miscellaneous/unspecified
Grassed median – extend existing
Median crossover – close crossover
Median crossover – directional crossover
Median crossover – relocate existing
Median crossover – unspecified
Raised island – install new
Raised island – modify existing
Raised island – remove existing
Raised island – unspecified
Advanced technology and ITS Advanced technology and ITS – other
Congestion detection / traffic monitoring system
Dynamic message signs
Over height vehicle detection
Alignment Alignment – other
Horizontal curve realignment
Horizontal and vertical alignment
Vertical alignment or elevation change
Animal-related Animal related
Interchange design Acceleration / deceleration / merge lane
Convert at-grade intersection to interchange
Extend existing lane on ramp
Improve intersection radius at ramp terminus
Installation of new lane on ramp
Interchange design – other
Ramp closure
Ramp metering
Intersection geometry Auxiliary lanes – add acceleration lane
Auxiliary lanes – add auxiliary through lane
Auxiliary lanes – add left-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – add right-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – add right-turn lane (free-flow)
Auxiliary lanes – add slip lane
Auxiliary lanes – add two-way left-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – extend acceleration/deceleration lane
Auxiliary lanes – extend existing left-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – extend existing right-turn lane
Auxiliary lanes – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Auxiliary lanes – modify acceleration lane
Auxiliary lanes – modify auxiliary through lane
Auxiliary lanes – modify free-flow turn  lane
Auxiliary lanes – modify left-turn lane offset
Auxiliary lanes – modify right-turn lane offset
Auxiliary lanes – modify turn lane storage
Auxiliary lanes – modify turn lane taper
Auxiliary lanes – modify two-way left-turn lane
Intersection geometrics – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Intersection geometrics – modify intersection corner radius
Intersection geometrics – modify skew angle
Intersection geometrics – realignment to align offset cross streets
Intersection geometrics – realignment to increase cross street offset
Intersection geometrics – re-assign existing lane use
Intersection geometry – other
Splitter island – install on one or more approaches
Splitter island – remove from one or more approaches
Splitter island – unspecified
Through lanes – add additional through lane
Intersection traffic control Intersection flashers – add "when flashing" warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add advance emergency vehicle warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add advance heavy vehicle warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add advance intersection warning sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – add miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Intersection flashers – add overhead (actuated)
Intersection flashers – add overhead (continuous)
Intersection flashers – add stop sign-mounted
Intersection flashers – modify existing
Intersection flashers – remove existing
Intersection signing – add basic advance warning
Intersection signing – add enhanced advance warning (double-up and/or oversize)
Intersection signing – add enhanced regulatory sign (double-up and/or oversize)
Intersection signing – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Intersection signing – relocate existing regulatory sign
Intersection traffic control – other
Modify control – all-way stop to roundabout
Modify control – modifications to roundabout
Modify control – no control to roundabout
Modify control – no control to two-way stop
Modify control – remove right-turn yield
Modify control – reverse priority of stop condition
Modify control – traffic signal to roundabout
Modify control – two-way stop to all-way stop
Modify control – two-way stop to roundabout
Modify control – two-way yield to two-way stop
Pavement Markings – add advance signal ahead
Pavement markings – add advance stop ahead
Pavement markings – add dashed edge line along mainline
Pavement markings – add lane use symbols
Pavement markings – add stop line
Pavement markings – add yield line
Pavement markings – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Pavement markings – refresh existing pavement markings
Modify traffic signal – add additional signal heads
Modify traffic signal – add backplates
Modify traffic signal – add backplates with retroreflective borders
Modify traffic signal – add closed loop system
Modify traffic signal – add emergency vehicle preemption
Modify traffic signal – add flashing yellow arrow
Modify traffic signal – add long vehicle detection
Modify traffic signal – add railroad preemption
Modify traffic signal – add wireless system
Modify traffic signal – miscellaneous/other/unspecified
Modify traffic signal – modernization/replacement
Modify traffic signal – modify signal mounting (spanwire to mast arm)
Modify traffic signal – remove existing signal
Modify traffic signal – replace existing indications (incandescent-to-LED and/or 8-to-12 inch dia.)
Modify traffic signal timing – left-turn phasing (permissive to protected/permissive)
Modify traffic signal timing – left-turn phasing (permissive to protected-only)
Modify traffic signal timing – adjust clearance interval (yellow change and/or all-red)
Modify traffic signal timing – general retiming
Modify traffic signal timing – signal coordination
  Systemic improvements – signal-controlled
Systemic improvements – stop-controlled
Lighting Continuous roadway lighting
Intersection lighting
Lighting – other
Site lighting – horizontal curve
Site lighting – intersection
Site lighting – interchange
Site lighting – pedestrian crosswalk
Miscellaneous Miscellaneous
Non-infrastructure Educational efforts
Enforcement
Data/traffic records
Non-infrastructure – other
Outreach
Road safety audits
Training and workforce development
Transportation safety planning
Parking Modify parking
Parking – other
Remove parking
Restrict parking
Truck parking facilities
Pedestrians and bicyclists Crosswalk
Install new "smart" crosswalk
Install new crosswalk
Install sidewalk
Medians and pedestrian refuge areas
Miscellaneous pedestrians and bicyclists
Modify existing crosswalk
Pedestrian beacons
Pedestrian bridge
Pedestrian signal
Pedestrian signal – audible device
Pedestrian signal – Pedestrian Hybrid Beacon
Pedestrian signal – install new at intersection
Pedestrian signal – install new at non-intersection location
Pedestrian signal – modify existing
Pedestrian signal – remove existing
Pedestrian warning signs – add/modify flashers
Pedestrian warning signs – overhead
Railroad grade crossings Grade separation
Model enforcement activity
Protective devices
Railroad grade crossing gates
Railroad grade crossing signing
Railroad grade crossings – other
Surface treatment
Upgrade railroad crossing signal
Widen crossing for additional lane
Roadside Barrier end treatments (crash cushions, terminals)
Barrier transitions
Barrier – cable
Barrier – concrete
Barrier- metal
Barrier – other
Barrier – removal
Curb or curb and gutter
Drainage improvements
Fencing
Removal of roadside objects (trees, poles, etc.)
Roadside grading
Roadside – other
Roadway Install / remove / modify passing zone
Pavement surface – high friction surface
Pavement surface – miscellaneous
Roadway narrowing (road diet, roadway reconfiguration)
Roadway – other
Roadway – restripe to revise separation between opposing lanes and/or shoulder widths
Roadway widening – add lane(s) along segment
Roadway widening – curve
Roadway widening – travel lanes
Rumble strips – center
Rumble strips – edge or shoulder
Rumble strips – transverse
Rumble strips – unspecified or other
Superelevation / cross slope
Roadway delineation Improve retroreflectivity
Longitudinal pavement markings – new
Longitudinal pavement markings – remarking
Delineators post-mounted or on barrier
Raised pavement markers
Roadway delineation – other
Roadway signs and traffic control Curve-related warning signs and flashers
Sign sheeting – upgrade or replacement
Roadway signs and traffic control – other
Roadway signs (including post) – new or updated
Shoulder treatments Widen shoulder – paved or other
Pave existing shoulders
Shoulder grading
Shoulder treatments – other
Speed management Modify speed limit
Radar speed signs
Speed detection system / truck warning
Speed management – other
Traffic calming feature
Work Zone Work zone

Appendix B. Detailed Tables of Project Costs Summaries

Table 5: Number and Cost of 2016 Projects by Improvement Category

Improvement Category Number of Projects Total Cost of Projects* Average Total Cost* Total HSIP Cost of Projects* Average HSIP Cost*
Access management 74 $24,735,205.53 $618,380.14 $19,149,121.56 $478,728.04
Advanced technology and ITS 23 $133,498,042.07 $7,026,212.74 $18,717,355.65 $985,123.98
Alignment 57 $109,742,958.24 $2,494,158.14 $83,516,678.05 $1,942,248.33
Animal-related 1 $1,605,406.00 $1,605,406.00 $1,605,406.00 $1,605,406.00
Interchange design 43 $45,468,192.30 $1,228,870.06 $35,188,717.47 $951,046.42
Intersection geometry 458 $407,951,361.13 $1,065,147.16 $264,228,117.69 $697,171.81
Intersection traffic control 608 $370,872,781.67 $690,638.33 $280,015,667.29 $529,330.18
Lighting 64 $50,795,526.81 $875,784.95 $45,617,428.72 $800,305.77
Miscellaneous 61 $61,648,392.67 $1,185,546.01 $38,550,526.49 $755,892.68
Multiple 15 $19,712,910.48 $1,314,194.03 $19,440,563.48 $1,296,037.57
Non-infrastructure 205 $83,818,845.37 $463,087.54 $72,048,428.46 $400,269.05
Parking 1 $244,896.00 $244,896.00 $244,896.00 $244,896.00
Pedestrians and bicyclists 180 $101,308,610.06 $865,885.56 $81,405,462.91 $707,873.59
Railroad grade crossings 50 $17,231,494.00 $574,383.13 $12,297,082.00 $409,902.73
Roadside 444 $459,773,354.90 $1,191,122.68 $393,629,816.45 $1,033,149.12
Roadway 1244 $1,106,988,026.56 $927,125.65 $497,480,541.80 $417,699.87
Roadway delineation 246 $261,570,735.14 $1,157,392.63 $103,763,309.83 $459,129.69
Roadway signs and traffic control 261 $70,422,979.73 $294,656.82 $66,095,010.82 $281,255.37
Shoulder treatments 220 $538,903,795.63 $2,554,046.42 $334,430,445.80 $1,584,978.42
Speed management 6 $5,639,289.00 $1,409,822.25 $443,000.00 $221,500.00
Work Zone 13 $6,669,955.78 $513,073.52 $6,584,195.78 $506,476.60
Unknown 194 $149,059,277.47 $768,346.79 $86,080,703.88 $623,773.22
Total 4468 $4,027,662,036.54 $1,011,467.11 $2,460,532,476.13 $631,877.88

* Not all states provided cost data for all projects in a given improvement category.

Table 6: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Geometry

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Auxiliary lanes – add left-turn lane 141 $123,639,661.11
Auxiliary lanes – add right-turn lane 32 $25,433,446.39
Auxiliary lanes – other 49 $62,997,174.60
Intersection geometrics – modify skew angle 18 $20,869,394.10
Intersection geometrics – other/unknown 204 $161,588,327.42
Intersection geometrics – realignment to improve offset 14 $13,423,357.51
Total 458 $407,951,361.13

Table 7: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Intersection Traffic Control

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Intersection flashers and signing 84 $26,426,718.00
Intersection traffic control – other/unknown 190 $97,361,597.86
Modify control to roundabout 90 $87,550,632.90
Modify traffic signal 198 $139,339,091.16
Modify traffic signal timing or phasing 37 $15,946,733.00
Pavement markings 9 $4,248,008.75
Total 608 $370,872,781.67

Table 8: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Pedestrians and Bicyclists

Subcategory Number of Projects  Total Cost 
Install or modify crosswalk 26 $3,192,251.00
Install or modify pedestrian signal 53 $32,579,159.94
Install sidewalk 30 $4,856,324.00
Miscellaneous pedestrian and bicyclist improvements 71 $60,680,875.12
Total 180 $101,308,610.06

Table 9: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Roadway

Subcategory Number of Projects Total Cost
Pavement surface 100 $105,145,037.40
Roadway – other/unknown 704 $351,258,463.55
Roadway narrowing (road diet, roadway reconfiguration) 23 $78,680,798.50
Roadway widening 59 $423,937,644.13
Rumble strips 335 $140,327,388.34
Superelevation / cross slope 23 $7,638,694.64
Total 1244 $1,106,988,026.56

Table 10: Number and Cost of Projects by Subcategory for Roadside

Subcategory Number of Projects  Total Cost 
Barrier 282 $353,246,216.17
Barrier end treatments 59 $23,384,061.92
Curb and drainage improvements 1 $1,983,967.00
Removal of roadside objects 11 $2,785,050.00
Roadside grading 18 $2,969,227.00
Roadside – other/unknown 73 $75,404,832.81
Total 444 $459,773,354.90

[1]FHWA, Fast Act HSIP Fact Sheet, February 2016. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/fastact/factsheets/hsipfs.cfm

[2]FHWA, Fast Act Apportionment Fact Sheet, February 2016. https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/fastact/factsheets/apportionmentfs.cfm

[3]FHWA, Highway Safety Improvement Program Manual, FHWA-SA-09-029, January 2010. https://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/hsip/resources/fhwasa09029/

[4]Highway Safety Manual, 1st edition, AASHTO, Washington, D.C., 2010.

[5]Council, F., E. Zaloshnja, T. Miller, and B. Persaud. "Crash Cost Estimates by Maximum Police-Reported Injury Severity Within Selected Crash Geometries", FHWA-HRT-05-051, FHWA Office of Safety R&D, October 2005.

[6]Persaud, B. "How to convert value of a statistical life to cost per crash by severity, crash type and speed limit", FHWA Draft Memo for DCMF Evaluations (unpublished), November 2014.

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