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FHWA Home / Safety / Pedestrian & Bicycle / Final Detailed Findings Report for Marketing Plan

The Pedestrian and Bicyclist Highway Safety Problem As It Relates to the Hispanic Population in the United States

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IV. Focus Group Discussions

This section of the report describes efforts to identify local Hispanic community-based groups with an interest in pedestrian/bicyclist safety and summarizes results of the focus group discussions that we reconducted. A more detailed analysis of the focus group research can be found at http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/ped_bike/hispanic/fhwanhtsa/.

A. Partnership and Coalition Building: Main Findings.

The Media Network (TMN) contacted over 100 Hispanic community-based organizations in New York, Miami, Los Angeles, and Washington,D.C. to learn more about the work these organizations are doing related to pedestrian and bicyclist safety, and to assess their overall interest in the topic. The goal was that these organizations would work in partnership with us to provide data regarding crash statistics, and to provide us with information on what actions, if any, are going on at the local level about this topic. The response from these organizations was disappointing, with many organizations not returning our calls.  The organizations we were able to talk to generally did not have much information on this topic.  A few groups provided reports, essays, or other documents with relevant information, or even personal stories about accidents they had witnessed or heard about. However, most organizations did not have relevant information. No significant local efforts related to Hispanic pedestrian and/or bicyclist safety were found.

B. Focus Group: Activities

Focus groups are used to develop insight and direction. The value of focus groups is in their ability to provide observers with unfiltered comments from a segment of the target population, and for decision-makers to gain insight into the beliefs,attitudes, and perceptions of the target audience. However, because of the limited number of respondents and the non-random nature of focus group recruiting, the findings from the focus groups cannot be quantitatively projected to a universe of similar respondents.

The following topics will be discussed below:

  1. Focus Group Methodology
  2. Recruitment Process for Focus Groups
  3. Profile of Participants
  4. Detailed Findings from Pedestrian Focus Groups
  5. Detailed Findings from Bicyclist Focus Groups
  6. Focus Group Main Findings

1. Focus Group Methodology

The focus groups were held in March, April, and May 2004 in Silver Spring, MD (just outside Washington, DC), New York, Miami, and Los Angeles. Each group was led by a professional bilingual focus group moderator. The groups lasted about two hours and were conducted in Spanish. In each city, one group was conducted with bicyclists and one group was conducted with pedestrians. Each participant signed an agreement to acknowledge that the session was being recorded (audio only), and informing them that their personal information would be kept confidential. Participants were provided with a light dinner,as well as a cash stipend for their participation.

At the beginning of the discussion, participants were encouraged to share their ideas and were told that there were no wrong answers to the questions being asked. Participants were advised of "ground rules" for the discussion, which included the role of the moderator and what constitutes appropriate participant behavior. They were then reminded that they were being recorded.

To begin the discussion, participants introduced themselves to one another and to the moderator. They were then led through the research questions in the moderator'guide, which focused on issues such as general attitudes about bicycle and pedestrian safety, knowledge of U.S. traffic laws, sources of information about these laws and safety issues, and overall interest in this topic.

2. Recruitment Process for Focus Groups

The Media Network designed recruiting screeners to make sure that participants in the focus groups fit the profile of respondents FHWA/NHTSA was seeking. We had two different group types in each city: Hispanic pedestrians and Hispanic bicyclists. Our goal was to have approximately eight to nine participants in each group. The Media Network worked with partners from its own proprietary database, community centers, and other local organizations (including local biking associations) to obtain names of people who fit the criteria to participate in these focus groups (Spanish-speaking Hispanic males and females, over the age of 18, who were regular walkers or bicycle riders). Our goal was to create diverse groups of respondents in each city. Potential participants were contacted by telephone and were screened to verify their eligibility. See the Appendix for the screeners used in this project.

Eligible participants were invited to participate in the groups, and were assured of the personal confidentiality and research-oriented purpose of the groups. These participants were not informed of the sponsor of this project. Confirmation letters with the time and location of the group were sent to all participants, as well as directions tother facilities where the groups were being held. Participants were called the night before the sessions to remind and encourage them to attend.

3. Profile of Participants

All persons selected to be in a focus group described themselves as Latino or Hispanic and indicated that they spoke Spanish at least"some of the time" at home. The focus group discussions were held in Spanish. To participate in the pedestrian focus group they had to indicate that they walked a half mile or more at least twice a week. To be in the bicycle focus group they had to indicate that they rode a bicycle at least once a week.

A total of 62 persons, 28 males and 34 females,participated. Thirty-five persons participated in the four pedestrian focus groups and 27 persons participated in the 4 bicycle focus groups.

Eleven participants were from Puerto Rico; 7 from Cuba; 6 from Mexico; 5 from Columbia; 4 each from Argentina, Guatemala and Peru; and 3 each from Ecuador, El Salvador and Nicaragua. The remaining participants were from other South and Central American countries.

The median age category was 40-49 years old, with 30-39 years being the modal age category.

Most (18) of the respondents reported having a high school degree or a GED. Fifteen had a college degree, 12 had some college, 9 had less than a high school degree and 8 reported having a graduate or professional degree.

Reported annual incomes were as follows: Less than $15,000 -15; $15-$25,000 - 12; $25-$40,000 - 17; $40-$60,000 - 12; and over $60,000 - 6.

4. Detailed Findings for Pedestrian Focus Groups

The findings reported here are from the four groups that focused on issues related to Hispanic pedestrian safety. The findings are topically organized.

a. Where and how often Hispanic pedestrians walk

Participants reported a variety of walking behaviors. Several do not own a car, and thus rely heavily on walking to get them places. Others live within walking distance of places they visit regularly, such as church or the grocery store. Still others walk to public transportation stops or simply for pleasure or exercise. They reported walking anywhere from several minutes a day to several hours a day. Most walk during the daytime, but a few reported that they walk at night. There is some sense among these pedestrians, discussed later in this report, that Hispanic pedestrians may encounter particular hazards in the places they walk that other ethnic groups do not (e.g. in more dangerous areas). California pedestrians were asked whether they personally walked along railroad tracks, and all group members reported that they do not. They said that in the U.S., railways are better protected than in Hispanic countries, with fences and signs that prevent people from walking along the tracks.

b. General awareness of traffic signs and regulations

Focus group participants mentioned that they were familiar with several aspects of the U.S. traffic system, including various traffic signs, signals, and laws. However,their knowledge of these laws and systems was somewhat vague, and most participants could not describe in detail the safety systems concerning traffic in the U.S. For example, one group member described pedestrian walkways as "those white lines," while another indicated awareness of the crosswalk buttons, but skepticism regarding whether they really worked. Likewise, some pedestrians did not have specific ideas about what constitutes appropriate pedestrian behavior. For example, many signs are only in English, which creates confusion for new immigrants in particular. Additionally, in the U.S. system most signs are for drivers, so pedestrians report that they are not always sure what they are supposed to do (e.g. many participants reported initial confusion regarding what the blinking hand meant at a crosswalk).

c. Sources of information about traffic signs and regulations

Participants in these focus groups reported that they have few formal sources of information available to them about changing traffic laws, and they reported that new immigrants have no consolidated source of general traffic information. For example, Miami participants said that they have no source of information when laws change, and Los Angeles participants said it would take a very prominent public education campaign to alert them to changes in laws. Hispanics' original knowledge about these laws was acquired mostly through day-to-day experience and an informal network of friends and family members, although a few reported some formal education (e.g. driver's education) regarding these issues, and still others said most of what they know they learned while taking the test to get a U.S. driver's license. Many participants spontaneously mentioned that for many Hispanics who are new to the U.S., traffic laws are likely to be confusing and unknown. Hispanic appear to self-identify as relatively uninformed about these laws, although several participants said Hispanics know no more or less about these laws than other ethnic groups.

d. Pedestrians' perceptions of danger

The participants spontaneously reported that some of the places they walk are dangerous for pedestrians. For example, they mentioned intersections where cars never stop or where cars routinely stop in the middle of crosswalks, places where there are few traffic signals or where cars ignore signals, places where there are no sidewalks, and places where the time for pedestrians to cross the street is insufficient. Pedestrians also report alack of respect in general from motorists, and cite bicyclists as a cause for concern. Many report having been in accidents with bicyclists. While they see walking as something of a hazard, often there is no alternative.

e. Safety measures and safety precautions

These pedestrians reported a variety of precautions that they take to make themselves safer. Most reported that they do not wear fluorescent clothing or reflectors to make themselves more visible, although a few do use these devices or substitutes of their own devising. [An exception was in Los Angeles, where most group members said they do wear lighter colored clothing to make themselves more visible.] A few also said that they simply avoid walking at night, or in bad weather. Pedestrians who did not currently use reflective clothing are willing to consider this behavior. Other safety measures employed by pedestrians include making sure there is an appropriate distance between themselves and cars before crossing the street, being aware of weather and general driving conditions, or trying to make visual contact with drivers to ensure drivers were aware of their presence.

f. Risk-seeking behaviors among pedestrians

These participants were most comfortable discussing behaviors that they see other pedestrians engaged in that might be unsafe, as opposed to providing specific examples of what they do which is risky. There is a general awareness that pedestrians can cause accidents doing things such as crossing in the middle of a street, or not waiting for the appropriate time to cross. Participants did not think that Hispanics were more likely to do these things than other ethnic groups. In terms of personal risky behaviors, many pedestrians report that they have jaywalked. While they know this is dangerous, they do this because they are in a hurry. Finally, some pedestrians said that they have seen other people walk after drinking. New York participants said this was common, and at least one person admitted having done this. In Miami, participants said they had only heard of such behavior and never engaged in it themselves. In Los Angeles, one person said he used to do this, but no longer does, and another reported that a man in his building does this all the time.

g. Personal knowledge of accidents

About a third of these participants had knowledge of someone who had been involved in an accident while a pedestrian. These included personal incidents, incidents involving friends and family members, and incidents they had observed. Some of the accidents were serious (one participant knew of someone who had been killed and another where a man's leg was broken), but they also reported minor incidents. The crashes involved pedestrians and cars and pedestrians and bicycles. Some of these accidents were reported to the police, while others were not. There is some reluctance to report such accidents because of fears of the police and concerns about immigration status. The causes of these accidents include parents not monitoring their children's behaviors and drivers failing to follow traffic laws. Additionally, one participant reported almost getting in an accident because he was distracted and thinking about other things.

h. Groups seen as most likely to be in an accident

Focus group participants mentioned three main groups of people likely to be involved in accidents: young children, because they do what they want and tend not to pay attention; older people, because they move slower; and, recent immigrants, because they don't know U.S. traffic rules as well and tend to work in more dangerous areas. While there is a great deal of agreement that children and seniors are more at risk, participants were more divided as to whether recent immigrants really are at increased risk. Some participants argued that recent immigrants are very alert because they are in an unfamiliar situation, while others said these immigrants simply cannot compensate for the fact that they do not know U.S. laws as well as native-born Americans or people who have been in the U.S. longer.

i. General Hispanic cultural differences

Focus group participants reported several general cultural differences that pertain to Hispanic pedestrian safety. They say that many Hispanics come from rural areas, and that adapting to city life in the U.S. takes time. Likewise, many Hispanics who come to this country do not know English well, or do not understand U.S. traffic patterns(see next section for more information on this topic). Hispanics also feel they are more likely to walk because they are poorer. Additionally,they report that many Hispanics may be afraid to report accidents to the police, because they do not know English or the U.S. traffic system well, and because some immigrants are in this country illegally. There is also a general sense that Hispanics may take more risks than other ethnic groups, due in part to an attitude of fatalism(i.e. "if it's meant to happen, it will happen"), which may mean that this population engages in more risk-seeking behaviors. One participant also said that Hispanic culture makes Latinos more likely to be rowdy while drinking alcohol, which could lead to more accidents. At the same time, some participants said that Hispanics are more alert here than in their own countries, because they are more aware of these issues.

j. Differences in traffic between Latino countries and the U.S.

These pedestrians had very energetic discussions about the differences between traffic patterns and traffic signs in the United States vs. in Hispanic countries. A primary difference is that there is more traffic in general in the United States. In addition, one of the most consistently reported differences is that traffic rules are enforced much more stringently in the United States, and, in general, traffic is more regulated in this country. Several participants also mentioned that the U.S. system is less corrupt. For the most part, traffic signs are the same in Latino countries as in the U.S. However, participants said that there are more traffic signs in the U.S., and that sometimes these signs are located in different places than they are in their home countries, or have text written in English that they do not understand. Participants specifically mentioned problems with knowing what to do at a crosswalk, with the yield sign, and with pedestrian crossings marked "walk" or "don't walk" (as opposed to using symbols). Finally, some participants said that Hispanics are worse drivers than other Americans, and that, subsequently,Hispanic neighborhoods are more dangerous places to be a pedestrian. Hispanic neighborhoods are also said to be more crowded, with more kids in the streets, and "less respect" for traffic laws than in non-Hispanic neighborhoods.

k. Country of origin differences

Participants agreed that country of origin might also matter, although they found it difficult to come up with specific examples of differences. Essentially, they reported that each Hispanic culture is unique, and, because of this, different Hispanics bring varying expectations to being a pedestrian in the United States. Additionally, each person has a different background and education, and these factors are also related to knowledge and behaviors. However, we found in the groups a great deal of consistency in the answers people provided, indicating that country of origin differences are likely not very significant contributors to this issue, and are likely overshadowed by general cultural and language differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanics.

l. Safety solutions: Fines and tickets

In thinking about the problem of Hispanic pedestrian safety,one immediate solution offered by group members was that traffic laws needed to be more strictly enforced. Participants were not clear as to whether it was drivers, pedestrians, or both who needed to be subject to more stringent fines. The general sense was that even though the U.S. was more regulated in this regard than Latino countries, laws are still relatively lax regarding enforcement. They believe that issuing tickets with associated fines would improve the behaviors of drivers and pedestrians. Fines should be at least $40 for infractions such as jaywalking, and many people in the groups supported even higher fines.

m. Safety solutions: Respect and education

Another common solution offered to this problem was the need for more general respect and education among pedestrians and drivers. Partly, this is tied to a need to recognize that certain behaviors and practices are dangerous. However, pedestrians, and recent immigrants in particular, need more traffic safety education. For example, this education could explain what crosswalks are, and what the crosswalk symbols mean. Pedestrians also thought that it was important for drivers to respect pedestrians,including yielding to pedestrians and being alert for pedestrians.

n. Overall interest

Participants said that they were personally interested in this topic, and that the Hispanic community in general would also be interested in this issue. However, this issue wa snot seen as more pressing than other social concerns (e.g. crime or education). The most compelling statistic seems to be that Hispanics are significantly over represented, by a factor of two, in such crashes. This statistic makes people interested in this topic.

o. Hispanics' suggestions for public outreach on this topic

Participants mentioned several places they would like to see more information on this issue distributed. These places include television (e.g. Univision), radio, public transit stations, commercials, soap operas, soccer games, PSAs, churches, schools, and supermarkets. All such materials should be bilingual. Participants are not interested in receiving information via the Internet. Materials also should include graphics and other visuals, and not rely too heavily on text. Participants also had some ideas for the content of such a campaign. These include stopping at every light,looking both ways before crossing the street, obeying the laws, respecting the lights, crossing only in pedestrian walkways, and education about what to do at yellow lights and about how cars can slide in snow and bad weather.

5. Detailed Findings for Bicyclist Focus Groups

The findings reported here are from the four focus groups that focused on issues related to Hispanic bicycle safety. The findings are topically organized.

a. Where and how often Hispanic bicyclists ride

Participants reported a range of bicycling behaviors. Many rely on their bicycle as a means of transportation to get to and from work, to run errands, and for leisure activities or exercise. One participant reported using his bicycle for work as a bicycle courier in New York. Some participants combined their riding with other forms of transportation (e.g. the bus), and were more likely to use alternative transportation in bad weather or at night. They reported biking anywhere from fifteen minutes to an hour per day, with the exception of the bike messenger who reported riding eight to ten hours each day. Although most riding occurs during the day, one participant did enjoy riding at night, when there was less traffic. There was a wide range of rider characteristics, with participant shaving been bike riders anywhere from a few months to 25 years. Some participants believed that Hispanics were more likely to ride bikes than other ethnic groups, because they tend not to own cars as frequently.

b. General awareness of traffic signs and regulations

Participants in all cities reported that they are familiar with some aspects of the traffic system, including traffic signs, signals, and laws. However, their knowledge was somewhat vague, and many had questions about whether their recollections of the law were correct and what specific things the law required. For example, is it legal to ride on sidewalks? This is in contrast to pedestrians, who generally reported that they know the laws, but do not always follow them (an exception is that crosswalks were not well understood by either group). Other bicyclists had an awareness of the law, but reported that they felt safer sometimes breaking the law, e.g. riding against the traffic flow, riding on sidewalks, or crossing in the middle of the street.

c. Sources of information about traffic signs and regulations

Participants in these focus groups reported that there are several disparate sources of information for bicyclists about traffic laws and signs, but there is nowhere they can acquire general information on this topic. They mentioned that they currently receive information from the news, bicycle associations, newspapers,the Internet, police officers, or through personal experience. The groups felt that biking rules are not well publicized; several participants even questioned if such rules existed. Group members were interested in learning more about biking laws in general; in particular, they want to know more about their rights as bicycle riders. They would like such materials to be available to them in Spanish.

d. Bicyclists' perceptions of danger

These bicyclists reported a variety of situations and places that they considered threatening or dangerous. For example, they mention that there is often not enough room for bicyclists on the streets, and, subsequently, cars pass too close to them. They also note that often there are no pathways or signs to indicate where they should go. Other concerns include: intersections where vehicles turn on red lights; bad weather or riding at night; children who run into the street;hostility from drivers; areas with too much traffic; inconsistent bike lanes;construction areas; numerous pedestrians in crosswalks; and, a lack of security in certain neighborhoods. These dangers make them more likely to disobey the law, which, in certain situations, makes them feel safer. For example,bicyclists sometimes prefer to ride against the traffic, even though they know they are not supposed to do this. Almost all bicyclists agreed that there were numerous safety concerns for bicyclists, even leading to some reluctance to think about these risks. One participant noted: "I don't think of anything,so that I don't become nervous."

e. Safety measures and safety precautions

These participants reported being aware of a variety of safety measures. Some participants used such measures, while others did not, for reasons such as cost, appearance, and discomfort. Safety measures mentioned include: respecting the signs and laws; finding safer routes where there was less traffic or specific bike paths; walking across intersections after pedestrians and cars have passed; watching car signals; being alert by making eye contact with cars and looking over your shoulder; checking brakes; wearing proper shoes and helmets; and, reducing speed as they approach corners. At nighttime or in adverse weather conditions, most participants reported that they take extra precautions such as wearing reflective clothing, using lights on their bikes, or riding on the sidewalk. However, only a few participants reported that they avoid going out at these times. Hispanic bicyclists, then, appear to take more safety precautions than Hispanic pedestrians, but such precautions are still far from universal. Bicyclists also offer several suggestions to improve safety. These include: the need for more bicycle repair shops; the need for more affordable safety devices; adding mirrors to bicycles; adding places to store a bicycle in the city; and, creating and offering a formal bicycle course for new immigrants.

f. Risk-seeking behaviors among bicyclists

These participants openly discussed some of their biking behaviors that might pose a hazard to themselves or others. For example, many reported actions such as crossing the street where there is not an intersection, not stopping for red lights, not wearing safety gear, and being careless at times. Additionally, a few participants admitted to riding their bicycles after drinking alcohol. These risk-seeking behaviors were not seen as particularly harmful by group members, and, in some cases, bicyclists reported that they felt justified in their behaviors. These behaviors seem to be motivated by convenience and a desire to save time. In fact, some participants even said that when they are biking certain places (e.g. to work) they will not take safety precautions if these measures add time to their commutes.

g. Personal knowledge of accidents

About half of these participants reported that they had knowledge of someone (including themselves) who had been involved in an accident while a bicyclist. These included personal incidents, incidents involving friends, family members and colleagues, and incidents they had observed. While pedestrians are sometimes involved, most crashes seem to occur between bicyclists and cars; however, bicyclists cite pedestrians as the cause of several crashes. These crashes occur quite often: one participant in New York reported that he personally had "near misses" daily. Indeed, the New York group reported more accidents than participants in any other city. Causes of accidents mentioned included car passengers opening doors in the path of bicyclists, poor road conditions, dogs,children running in front of bicyclists, and car drivers running red lights or not noticing bicyclists in crosswalks. Some accidents were reported to the police, but most were not. Hispanics appear to be less likely to report accidents for a variety of reasons. These include: Hispanics are less likely to know their rights or to have proper legal documents; Hispanics experience language barriers; some Hispanics are afraid of U.S. police; and, Hispanics may have a cultural belief that such crashes should not be handled by the police.

h. Groups seen as most likely to be in an accident

Overall, focus group participants reported children as most likely to be in an accident, but also mentioned new immigrants, seniors, and those who are less informed about the laws as being at increased risk. Hispanics are not seen as more likely to be in accidents than other groups.

i. General Hispanic cultural differences

Focus group participants reported several general cultural differences that affect bicyclist safety in the Hispanic community. They say that the U.S. in general is quite different from Latino countries, including differences in language and weather. Additionally, these Hispanics reported that their culture encourages fatalism and risk taking, although they try to avoid accidents. They say that Hispanics often have more dangerous jobs than non-Hispanics, and that Hispanic neighborhoods in the U.S. are less safe because of limited respect for bicyclists, increased crime, and a higher population density. At the same time, they do not think that Hispanics are any different than anyone else, and some people feel safer in Hispanic neighborhoods.

j. Differences in traffic between Latino countries and the U.S.

These bicyclists seemed to agree that basic traffic laws are similar between the U.S. and their home countries, but also that laws are enforced more stringently in the U.S. Therefore, they report that many Hispanics are not used to obeying traffic laws. Additionally, automobile ownership is more common in the U.S., and many Latinos who immigrate to this country have never driven before, putting them at a disadvantage in understanding the behavior of cars. Additionally, Hispanics report that traffic and people move at a quicker pace in the U.S., and that they are not very familiar with some U.S. traffic signs. For example, walkways and crossways were unfamiliar to many of these participants, as are any signs where the text is only in English. Seasonal differences were also somewhat unfamiliar to these participants, most of whom come from warmer clients. A few respondents down played these differences, however.

k. Country of origin differences

Participants agreed that although each Hispanic culture is unique, cultural differences as they pertain to bicycle safety are relatively minor. They report that Hispanics share much in terms of core traits, religion, and language.

l. Safety solutions: Signs and pathways

In thinking about these bicycle safety issues, participants felt it would be beneficial to have clear and helpful signs for bicyclists. They think these signs will be most helpful if they rely on graphics, and not text, to convey information. In addition, they felt that additional pathways for bicyclists would help them to avoid pedestrian and car accidents,and that these pathways need to be well marked. As noted above, and also in the pedestrian group, a better explanation of crosswalks and walkways for pedestrians and bicyclists would also be helpful for Hispanics.

m. Safety solutions: Respect the traffic code

Another common solution was the need for general respect and education among bicyclists. As was mentioned earlier, participants felt that it would be helpful to create a bicycle education class for new immigrants, where information could be disseminated in a way that is easily understood. Overall, they added that there must be a mutual respect on the roads between cars, bicycles, and pedestrians. They emphasized that bikers need to be alert, careful, and respectful.

n. Overall interest

Overall, participants expressed interest in this topic. However, traffic safety concerns are not as important as basic needs such as health, education, and immigration. Still, participants would be receptive to additional information on this topic, especially information designed for new immigrants where they perceive a great need.

o. Hispanics' suggestions for public outreach on this topic

Participants mentioned several places they would like to see more information on this topic. These include: media outlets (radio, newspaper, television, and magazines); doctor's offices; churches; schools; community centers; bus shelters and other public transit areas; the Internet; supermarkets; libraries; Hispanic neighborhoods;motor vehicle offices; and, bike stores. They also thought that word of mouth would be a good way to spread this type of information. Advertising campaigns with commercials, posters, flyers, bumper stickers, and a bicycle race to raise awareness were also suggested as ways to reach the community. Participants also felt that it was important to produce manuals and maps for bicyclists with more information. Nearly all participants felt that materials should be bilingual, and they emphasized the need for"simple language messages, so that everybody can understand." They also thought materials should be specifically targeted to children. They expressed the desire for information on "laws," "precautions," "risks," and"positive and negative things about [being] a bicyclist." Finally, the education of drivers on bicycle safety was seen as critical.

6. Focus Group Main Findings

The main findings from the focus groups are consistent with the findings from the partnership calls: Hispanics in the focus groups had not given much thought to these issues, but, when brought to their attention, they find them interesting and important. Participants were especially interested in the fact that Hispanics are over represented in pedestrian and bicycle accidents. The Hispanics in these groups see cultural differences as a main potential cause of accidents among Hispanics, and cite major differences in traffic laws and enforcement between Latino countries and the U.S. They report a general lack of education on these issues, and few Spanish-language sources of information. Basic information designed for Spanish speakers on this topic would be greatly appreciated and well received by these audience groups. Additionally,participants said that new immigrants are particularly in need of such information. Participants did not think any one particular group of Hispanics (e.g. Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, and Central Americans) was most at risk, however.

The main findings from the focus groups are:



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