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Roadside Safety Hardware Identification Methods

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Appendix A. Standards for RFID Tags


The RFID industry has multiple standards and an established class system. The industry also subdivides standards according to interface protocol, data content, conformance, and applications.(1) The Electronic Product Code (EPC) standard specifies longevity and memory requirements Memory requirements include:

The concept of a kill password and access password may be confusing. The protocol does not provide for a mechanism to prevent the reading of a Gen2 tag but has the ability to lock information using an access password and to render a tag inoperable using a kill password. A kill password will either render the tag unreadable or change the state of the tag–for example, changing the state of a retail tag from “inventory” to “purchased.”(3)

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has created multiple standards for tracking cattle, air interface protocols, payment systems, vicinity cards, and performance testing.(1)

The Auto-ID Center developed the EPC and related technologies using UHF RFID. The Auto-ID Center desired a global RFID system based on an open standard due to the inherent need for the ability to track goods from one country to the next. The center developed a numbering system and network infrastructure using ISO air interface protocols but, instead of using the ISO UHF protocol, developed its own due to the complexity of the existing ISO protocol. The Auto-ID protocol, with some procedures now accepted as an ISO standard (Gen2), originally proposed six classes of UHF RFID tags:

The industry adopted the EPC Radio Frequency Identity Protocols Generation-2 UHF RFID standard in 2004. This standard specifies the requirements for all classes of Gen2, which are backward compatible with first-generation tag standards. The 2004 standard applies to all tag classes but particularly to Class 2 tags. The EPC standard specifies longevity and memory requirements.


Known as the DoD-96 Identifier, this U.S. Department of Defense specification provides instruction for a 96-bit identifier format using EPCglobal Gen2 tag standards.(4) It is primarily used for supply chain management.


  1. Violino, B. A Summary of RFID Standards RFID Journal, January 16, 2005 http://www.rfidjournal.com/articles/view?1335 Accessed January 23, 2017.

  2. Fujitsu Limited Datasheet: World's Largest-Capacity 64KByte FRAM Metal Mount RFID Tag 2014 http://www.fujitsu.com/jp/group/frontech/documents/en/solutions/business-technology/intelligent-society/rfid/ait64k/brochure-ait64k.pdf Accessed January 23, 2017.

  3. SkyRFID, Inc RFID Gen 2–What Is It?–Smart RFID http://skyrfid.com/RFID_Gen_2_What_is_it.php Accessed January 23, 2017.

  4. U.S. Department of Defense. United States Department of Defense Suppliers' Passive RFID Information Guide. Version 15.0, January 2010. http://www.acq.osd.mil/log/sci/.AIT.cfml/DoD_Suppliers_Passive_RFID_Info_Guide_v15update.pdf Accessed January 23, 2017.

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