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FHWA Home / Safety / Roadway Departure / Roadway Visibility Research Needs Assessment

Roadway Visibility Research Needs Assessment

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FHWA-SA-17-031

December 2016

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Notice

This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The U.S. Government assumes no liability for the use of the information contained in this document.

The U.S. Government does not endorse products or manufacturers. Trademarks or manufacturers' names appear in this report only because they are considered essential to the objective of the document.

Quality Assurance Statement

The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) provides high-quality information to serve Government, industry, and the public in a manner that promotes public understanding. Standards and policies are used to ensure and maximize the quality, objectivity, utility, and integrity of its information. FHWA periodically reviews quality issues and adjusts its programs and processes to ensure continuous quality improvement.

Technical Report Documentation Page

1. Report No.
FHWA-SA-17-031
2. Government Accession No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No.
4. Title and Subtitle
Roadway Visibility Research Needs Assessment
5. Report Date
December 2016
6. Performing Organization Code
7. Author(s)
Travis Terry, Brad Brimley, Ronald Gibbons, and Paul J. Carlson
8. Performing Organization Report No.
9. Performing Organization Name and Address
Texas A&M Transportation Institute
The Texas A&M University System
College Station, Texas 77843-3135

Virginia Tech Transportation Institute
3500 Transportation Research Plaza
Blacksburg, Virginia 24060

Leidos, Inc.
11251 Roger Bacon Drive
Reston, VA 20190
10. Work Unit No. (TRAIS)
11. Contract or Grant No.
DTFH61-10-D-00024
12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address
Federal Highway Administration
Office of Safety Research and Development
6300 Georgetown Pike
McLean, VA 22101

Office of Safety
1200 New Jersey Ave SE
Washington, DC 20590
13. Type of Report and Period Covered
Final Report
14. Sponsoring Agency Code
HRDS and HSA
15. Supplementary Notes
16. Abstract

This report focuses on a review of issues related to nighttime visibility and assessment of how the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Office of Safety's three safety program areas—roadway departure safety, intersection safety, and pedestrian and bicycle safety—address concerns for nighttime visibility, as well as a review of fatality data and a gap analysis for research needs.

In addition to the assessment of the three program areas, this report summarizes a survey of practices and policies of highway design, traffic engineering, and highway safety that are based on daytime conditions and may neglect issues and concerns that arise from nighttime conditions.

17. Key Words
Visibility, roadway departure, intersection, pedestrian and bicycle, nighttime visibility.
18. Distribution Statement
No restrictions. This document is available to the public through the National Technical Information Service, Alexandria, Virginia 22312
19. Security Classif.
(of this report)

Unclassified
20. Security Classif.
(of this page)

Unclassified
21. No. of Pages
104
22. Price
N/A

Form DOT F 1700.7 (8-72) Reproduction of completed page authorized.

SI* (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS

APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SI UNITS
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
LENGTH
in inches 25.4 millimeters mm
ft feet 0.305 meters m
yd yards 0.914 meters m
mi miles 1.61 kilometers km
AREA
in2 square inches 645.2 square millimeters mm2
ft2 square feet 0.093 square meters m2
yd2 square yard 0.836 square meters m2
ac acres 0.405 hectares ha
mi2 square miles 2.59 square kilometers km2
VOLUME
fl oz fluid ounces 29.57 milliliters mL
gal gallons 3.785 liters L
ft3 cubic feet 0.028 cubic meters m3
yd3 cubic yards 0.765 cubic meters m3
NOTE: volumes greater than 1000 L shall be shown in m3
MASS
oz ounces 28.35 grams g
lb pounds 0.454 kilograms kg
T short tons (2000 lb) 0.907 megagrams (or "metric ton") Mg (or "t")
TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)
°F Fahrenheit 5 (F-32)/9 or (F-32)/1.8 Celsius °C
ILLUMINATION
fc foot-candles 10.76 lux lx
fl foot-Lamberts 3.426 candela/m2 cd/m2
FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS
lbf poundforce 4.45 newtons N
lbf/in2 poundforce per square inch 6.89 kilopascals kPa
APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS FROM SI UNITS
Symbol When You Know Multiply By To Find Symbol
LENGTH
mm millimeters 0.039 inches in
m meters 3.28 feet ft
m meters 1.09 yards yd
km kilometers 0.621 miles mi
AREA
mm2 square millimeters 0.0016 square inches in2
m2 square meters 10.764 square feet ft2
m2 square meters 1.195 square yards yd2
ha hectares 2.47 acres ac
km2 square kilometers 0.386 square miles mi2
VOLUME
mL milliliters 0.034 fluid ounces fl oz
L liters 0.264 gallons gal
m3 cubic meters 35.314 cubic feet ft3
m3 cubic meters 1.307 cubic yards yd3
MASS
g grams 0.035 ounces oz
kg kilograms 2.202 pounds lb
Mg (or "t") megagrams (or "metric ton") 1.103 short tons (2000 lb) T
TEMPERATURE (exact degrees)
°C Celsius 1.8C+32 Fahrenheit °F
ILLUMINATION
lx lux 0.0929 foot-candles fc
cd/m2 candela/m2 0.2919 foot-Lamberts fl
FORCE and PRESSURE or STRESS
N newtons 0.225 poundforce lbf
kPa kilopascals 0.145 poundforce per square inch lbf/in2

*SI is the symbol for the International System of Units. Appropriate rounding should be made to comply with Section 4 of ASTM E380. (Revised March 2003)

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Page last modified on April 11, 2017
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