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FHWA Home / Safety / Road Diets (Roadway Reconfiguration) / Road Diet Informational Guide

Road Diet Informational Guide

Table of Contents

References

1. FHWA, "Proven Safety Countermeasures" web page. Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/ [ Return to note 1. ]

2. FHWA "Proven Safety Countermeasures, 'Road Diet' (Roadway Reconfiguration)," FHWA-SA-12-013 (Washington, DC: 2012). Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/fhwa_sa_12_013.cfm [ Return to note 2. ]

3. Stamatiadis, N et al. "Guidelines for Road Diet Conversions." 2011. Available at: http://nacto.org/docs/usdg/guidelines_for_road_diet_conversion_stamatiadis.pdf [ Return to note 3. ]

4. Rosales, J., Road Diet Handbook: Setting Trends for Livable Streets, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC, 2006. [ Return to note 4. ]

5. Rosales, 2006. [ Return to note 5. ]

6. Harwood, D.W. NCHRP 282: Multilane Design Alternatives for Improving Suburban Highways, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, March 1986). [ Return to note 6. ]

7. Knapp, K., T. Welch, J. Witmer. Converting Four-Lane Undivided Roadways to a Three-Lane Cross Section: Factors to Consider. [ Return to note 7. ]

8. Nemeth, Z.A., "Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes: State-of-the-Art Overview and Implementation Guide." Transportation Research Record 681 (1978): 62-69. [ Return to note 8. ]

9. Pawlovich, M., W. Li, A. Carriquiry, and T. Welch, Iowa's Experience with "Road Diet" Measures: Impacts on Crash Frequencies and Crash Rates Assessed Following a Bayesian Approach, 2005. [ Return to note 9. ]

10. Harkey, D., R. Srinivasan, J. Baek, NCHRP 617: Accident Modification Factors for Traffic Engineering and ITS Improvements. (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2008). Available at: http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/nchrp/nchrp_rpt_617.pdf [ Return to note 10. ]

11. FHWA "Proven Safety Countermeasures, 'Road Diet' (Roadway Reconfiguration)," FHWA-SA-12-013 (Washington, DC: 2012). Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/fhwa_sa_12_013.cfm [ Return to note 11. ]

12. FHWA "Evaluation of Lane Reduction 'Road Diet' Measures on Crashes." FHWA Report No. FHWA-HRT-10-053. (Washington, D.C: 2010) [ Return to note 12. ]

13. Stout, Thomas B., Before and After Study of Some Impacts of 4-Lane to 3-Lane Roadway Conversions. March 2005. [ Return to note 13. ]

14. FHWA, Pedestrian Facilities Users Guide – Providing Safety and Mobility. FHWA-RD-01-102 (Washington, DC: 2001). Available at http://katana.hsrc.unc.edu/cms/downloads/PedFacility_UserGuide2002.pdf [ Return to note 14. ]

15. FHWA, Safety Effects of Marked vs. Unmarked Crosswalks at Uncontrolled Locations: Executive Summary and Recommended Guidelines, FHWA-RD-01-075 (Washington, DC: 2001). [ Return to note 15. ]

16. Garder P, "Pedestrian safety at traffic signals: a study carried out with the help of a traffic conflicts technique." Accident Analysis and Prevention 21: 435–444. [ Return to note 16. ]

17. FHWA Office of Planning, Environment, and Realty. "Livability Initiative" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/livability/ [ Return to note 17. ]

18. FHWA Proven Safety Countermeasures, Median and Pedestrian Crossing Islands in Urban and Suburban Areas, Washington, DC, 2012. [ Return to note 18. ]

19. Welch, T. The Conversion of Four Lane Undivided Urban Roadways to Three Lane Facilities, 1999. [ Return to note 19. ]

20. Knapp, K., K. Giese, Guidelines for the Conversion of Urban Four-Lane Undivided Roadways to Three-Lane Two-Way Left-Turn Lane Facilities, 2001. [ Return to note 20. ]

21. FHWA, "Context Sensitive Solutions" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/what.cfm [ Return to note 21. ]

22. FHWA, "Principles of Context Sensitive Design" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/qualities.cfm [ Return to note 22. ]

23. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999. [ Return to note 23. ]

24. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999. [ Return to note 24. ]

25. Knapp and Giese, 2001, p. 66. [ Return to note 25. ]

26. Gates, T., et al., The Safety and Operational Effects of "Road Diet" Conversions in Minnesota, 2007, pp. 65-66. [ Return to note 26. ]

27. City of Orlando, Edgewater Drive Before & After Re-Striping Results, 2002, p. 2. [ Return to note 27. ]

28. Gates et al., 2007, pp. 69. [ Return to note 28. ]

29. Gates et al., 2007, pp. 67. [ Return to note 29. ]

30. Chu, X. and M. Baltes, "Measuring Pedestrian Quality of Service of Midblock Street Crossings," Paper No. 03-5045, Transportation Research Record 1828 (2004): 89-97. [ Return to note 30. ]

31. McLeod, D.S. "Multimodal Arterial Level of Service," Transportation Research Circular E-C018 (2000): 221-233. [ Return to note 31. ]

32. Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Highway Capacity Manual (Washington, D.C.: 2010), p. 16-7. [ Return to note 32. ]

33. Knapp and Giese, 2001, p. 39. [ Return to note 33. ]

34. Knapp and Giese, 2001, p. 51. [ Return to note 34. ]

35. Stamatiadis et al., 2011, p. 29. [ Return to note 35. ]

36. Gates, T., D. Noyce, V. Talada, L. Hill, Safety and Operational Characteristics of Two-Way Left-Turn Lanes, 2006, p. 25. [ Return to note 36. ]

37. Knapp, K., K. Giese, and W. Lee, Urban Four-Lane Undivided to Three-Lane Roadway Conversion Guidelines, 2003. [ Return to note 37. ]

38. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999. [ Return to note 38. ]

39. Knapp, Welch, and Witmer, 1999. [ Return to note 39. ]

40. Knapp, Giese, and Lee, 2003. [ Return to note 40. ]

41. The League of American Bicyclists, "Road Diets Now Proven Safety Measure; Q&A with FHWA Associate Administrator Furst," News from the League, February 6, 2012. Available at: http://www.bikeleague.org/content/road-diets-now-proven-safety-measure-qa-fhwa-associate-administrator-furst [ Return to note 41. ]

42. Rosales, 2006. [ Return to note 42. ]

43. New York State Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, "Complete Streets Fact Sheet," New York, 2012. [ Return to note 43. ]

44. New York State Association of Metropolitan Planning Organizations, "Complete Streets Fact Sheet 2.0," New York, 2014. [ Return to note 44. ]

45. Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission, Regional Road Diet Analysis Feasibility Assessment, 2008. [ Return to note 45. ]

46. Tan, C., "Going on a Road Diet," Public Roads, Sept/Oct 2011. [ Return to note 46. ]

47. In-person meeting with Tracie Leix, P.E., Safety Programs Unit Manager, Michigan Department of Transportation. March 20, 2013. [ Return to note 47. ]

48. Interview with Christopher Zull, Traffic Safety Manager, and Carissa McQuiston, Traffic Engineer, City of Grand Rapids, Michigan, on March 20, 2013. [ Return to note 48. ]

49. Interview with Andrew Kilpatrick, Transportation Engineer, City of Lansing, Michigan, March 22, 2013. [ Return to note 49. ]

50. Research team interview with Derek Bradshaw and Jason Nordberg, Genesee County Metropolitan Planning Commission, Michigan. March 21, 2013. [ Return to note 50. ]

51. FHWA, Flexibility in Highway Design, (Washington, DC: 2012) [ Return to note 51. ]

52. AASHTO, A Guide for Achieving Flexibility in Highway Design, 1st Edition, 2004. [ Return to note 52. ]

53. FHWA, "Memorandum: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Flexibility," August 20, 2013. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/guidance/design_guidance/design_flexibility.cfm [ Return to note 53. ]

54. New Jersey Department of Transportation and Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Smart Transportation Guidebook: Planning and Designing Highways and Streets that Support Sustainable and Livable Communities, 2008. Available at http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/community/mobility/pdf/smarttransportationguidebook2008.pdf [ Return to note 54. ]

55. AASHTO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 6th Edition, 2011. [ Return to note 55. ]

56. Gattis, J.L. et al., NCHRP Report 659: Guide for the Geometric Design of Driveways, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2012). [ Return to note 56. ]

57. FHWA, User's Guide to Positive Guidance, 3rd Edition, (Washington, DC: 1990). [ Return to note 57. ]

58. Campbell, J., et al, NCHRP Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems, Second Edition, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2012). [ Return to note 58. ]

59. Morena, D., W.S. Wainwright, and F. Ranck, "Older Drivers at a Crossroads," Public Roads, FHWA-HRT-2007-002, Vol. 70, No. 4, January/February 2007. [ Return to note 59. ]

60. AASHTO, Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Edition, 2012. [ Return to note 60. ]

61. FHWA, "Memorandum: Bicycle and Pedestrian Facility Design Flexibility," August 20, 2013. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/bicycle_pedestrian/guidance/design_guidance/design_flexibility.cfm [ Return to note 61. ]

62. FHWA, Speed Concepts: Informational Guide, FHWA-SA-10-001 (Washington, D.C.: 2009). [ Return to note 62. ]

63. FHWA, "Access Management in the Vicinity of Intersections," Washington, DC. 2010. Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/intersection/resources/fhwasa10002/ [ Return to note 63. ]

64. AASHTO, Guide for High-Occupancy (HOV) Facilities, 2004. [ Return to note 64. ]

65. Texas Department of Transportation, Roadway Design Manual, Section 2.6, 2013. Available at http://onlinemanuals.txdot.gov/txdotmanuals/rdw/cross_sectional_elements.htm#BGBGIBAE [ Return to note 65. ]

66. AASHTO, Highway Drainage Guidelines, 4th Edition, 2007. [ Return to note 66. ]

67. AASHTO, Model Drainage Manual, 3rd Edition, 2005. [ Return to note 67. ]

68. AASHTO, Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, 1st Edition, 2004. [ Return to note 68. ]

69. The most recent PROWAG is in draft form as of July 2014. [ Return to note 69. ]

70. AASHTO, Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities, 4th Edition, 2012. [ Return to note 70. ]

71. AASTHO, A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets, 2011. [ Return to note 71. ]

72. Texas Transportation Institute, TCRP Report 19: Guidelines for the Location and Design of Bus Stops, (Transportation Research Board of the National Academies: Washington, D.C., 1996). [ Return to note 72. ]

73. Gattis, et al., 2012. [ Return to note 73. ]

74. Harwood, D. W., NCHRP Report 282: Multilane Design Alternatives for Improving Suburban Highways (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 1986). [ Return to note 74. ]

75. Harwood, D.W., NCHRP Report 330: Effective Utilization of Street Width on Urban Arterials, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 1990). [ Return to note 75. ]

76. Fitzpatrick, K. et al., TCRP Report 112/NCHRP Report 562: Improving Pedestrian Safety at Unsignalized Crossings, (Transportation Research Board: Washington, DC, 2006). [ Return to note 76. ]

77. AASHTO, Guide for the Planning, Design, and Operation of Pedestrian Facilities, 1st Edition, 2004. [ Return to note 77. ]

78. Bartlett, J., B. Graves, and T. Redmon, "Proven Countermeasures for Pedestrian Safety," Public Roads, FHWA-HRT-12-003, Vol. 75, No. 5, March/April 2012. [ Return to note 78. ]

79. Gattis et al., 2012. [ Return to note 79. ]

80. FHWA, Access Management in the Vicinity of Intersections – Technical Summary, FHWA-SA-10-002 (Washington, DC: 2002). [ Return to note 80. ]

81. City of Seattle, WA. [ Return to note 81. ]

82. Institute of Transportation Engineers, "Before-and-After Study," Technical Brief, (Washington DC, Institute of Transportation Engineers, 2009). [ Return to note 82. ]

83. Hauer, E., D.W. Harwood, F.M. Council, and M.S. Griffith, Estimating Safety by the Empirical Bayes Method: A Tutorial, 2002. Available at: http://pubsindex.trb.org/document/view/default.asp?lbid=726704 [ Return to note 83. ]

84. AASHTO, Highway Safety Manual, 1st Edition, 2010. [ Return to note 84. ]

85. Hauer, E., Observational Before – After Studies in Road Safety. (Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK: 1997). [ Return to note 85. ]

86. AASHTO, An Introduction to the Highway Safety Manual, 2010. [ Return to note 86. ]

87. AASHTO, Highway Safety Manual, 1st Edition, 2010. [ Return to note 87. ]

88. FHWA, 1989. [ Return to note 88. ]

89. Porter, R.J., E.T. Donnell, and J.M. Mason, "Geometric Design, Speed, and Safety," Transportation Research Record 2309 (2012): 39-47. [ Return to note 89. ]

90. Rosales, 2006. [ Return to note 90. ]

91. Harwood, 1986. [ Return to note 91. ]

92. FHWA, "Context Sensitive Solutions" web page. Available at: https://www.fhwa.dot.gov/context/what.cfm [ Return to note 92. ]

93. FHWA, "Proven Safety Countermeasures" web page. Available at: http://safety.fhwa.dot.gov/provencountermeasures/ [ Return to note 93. ]


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